Thursday, January 21, 2010
Kingdom of Siak(1723-1946)
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Siak Kingdom 1723 by Sultan Abdul Jalil Rahmat Syah(Raja Kechil)
The first sultan of Johor was Alauddin Riayat Shah II(1528-1564). He was the son of the last sultan of Malacca, Sultan Mahmud Shah. The succession of the Sultanate of Malacca in Johor ended with the death of Sultan Mahmud Shah II(1685-1699) in 1699 and throne was taken over by Sultan Abdul Jalil IV(formerly Bendahara Abdul Jalil). Abdul Jalil IV (1699-1720)was a bendahara before the death of the sultan. In the past, the sultan held absolute power over the state and was advised by a bendahara. It was report that bendahari had role in the assassination of sultan.
The assassination of Sultan Mahmud Syah in 1699, ended the last male ruler of Malacca Sultanate in Johor. Orang Laut has strong reaction against assassination, refusing to recognize the new Bendahara Dynasty. In 1709, Bendahara move its capital to Riau, about a quarter of entire population moved to assist Siamese against Bendahara ruler, because of questionable legitimacy of the new ruler.
In 1718, Raja Kechil of Minangkabau advernturer, claim to be the last male heir of the Malacca dynasty, gaining mass support from the Malay and Orang Laut. He ruled from 1718-1722.
In the 1720s., a new power came in the scene: the Bugis. They were and are the main ethnic group of the south-western coastal region of Sulawesi (Celebes). After the Dutch conquest of the Sultanate of Makassar, several groups of Bugis emigrated from Makassar(Sulawesi) and settled near Malacca in the 1710s.
1722, Sultan Sulaiman Badrul Alam Syah, the Bendahara ruler regained throne with the help of Buginese warriors and seamen from southwest Sulawesi, who ruled from 1722 to 1760. Raja Kechil , accompanied by Orang Laut (Orang Suku Bentan and Orang Suku Bulang)and some of his supporter established a new kingdom in Siak, following an expulsion from Johor. The Johor Empire now split into two kingdom, one in Siak, Sumatra, the other in Malay Peninsula.
In 1722, the Bugis captured the port of Riau and the whole Kingdom of Johore, which resulted in coalition of Bugis conquerors and the descendants of Bendahara Dynasty until 1787. The Bugis developed not only the port of Riau but also that of Selangor (north of Malacca).
In 1746, the Sultan of Johore Sulaiman Badrul Alam Shah(Bendahara Dynasty) gave the Siak Kingdom, as a gift, to the VOC of Dutch. That same year, agreements were made with the Peninsular Kingdom of Nanning, Rembau and Perak.
However, the Bugis were a constant threat to the Dutch. Their leader, Daeng Kamboja, made Linggi his base and, from October 1756 till July 1757, besieged Dutch Malacca. In February 1757, help arrived from Batavia and the Bugis were forced to drop the siege.
1765, Dutch VOC abandons fort at Siak.
1784 - To prevent an English occupation, the Dutch attacked Riau and, on 29 October 1784, the Bugis were defeated. The resulting treaty ended Johore's independence, and a Dutch fort was established at Tanjung Pinang (Riau).In the Malay Peninsula, Johore, Selangor,Perak,Trengganu and Pahang became Dutch territories. The VOC was truly dominant in the Straits.
1814 - Deli is a 1,820 km² state in east Sumatra founded in 1630. A Rajadom from 1630 until 1814, the state became a sultanate in 1814 when acquiring independence from Siak. It was based in Kota Medan. Dutch intervention in 1861, of which resulted in contract with the Netherlands East Indies the following year 1862, helped to recognize Deli's independence from Aceh and Siak.
1824 - In 1824, a treaty between the Dutch and British governments established the status quo of the colonial claims of both countries in this region of South-east Asia. The British withdraw from Sumatra (Bengkulu, Natal and Tapanuli) and the Dutch were forbidden to establish any settlement on the Malay Peninsula. Dutch colonial intervention in the island Sumatra was still fairly limited;Westerners had still not even set foot in the greater part of the island. The Dutch government was averse to spending funds on exploring new areas, unless they were forced to do so by particular circumstances.
1857 - 1857, when the Sultan of Siak, on the East Coast of Sumatra, became embroiled in internal strife and fled to Singapore. He requested the British colonial government to help him regain the throne and offered to accept the sultanate under the protection of the British Crown. This request was refused by the British, the Sultan contracted the British adventurer
Adam Wilson, a commercial assistant employed by the Singapore firm 'Martin, Dyce and Company', to undertake the venture. Wilson was promised the island of Benkalis and one third of the revenues of Siak. He recruited a mercenary force of Bugis and European sailors and it was reported that, the enterprise aroused a considerable enthusiasm among the mercantile community in Singapore 2) and equally strong alarm in Batavia. Wilson drove out the Sultans insurgent brother, but soon became involved in an quarrel with his principal, the Sultan, and tried to put himself on the throne of Siak. This time, the Sultan and his brother asked the Dutch colonial authorities in Riau to intervene.
The Dutch saw a possible repetition of Brooke's intervention in Sarawak in Wilson's venture,so they sent a small expedition to Siak; drove Wilson out, and re-installed the Sultan on the throne.
1858 - On 1 February 1858, a political contract was signed between the Netherlands Indies government and the sultanate of Siak Sri Indrapura and Siak came under the rule of the Dutch
1858 - Dutch take Siak in north Sumatra by treaty, and move troops in to prevent British adventurers from gaining a foothold there. The boundary of Siak is defined to include Langkat and Deli, infringing on Acehnese territory. The Dutch governed Tanah Deli(now Medan) from 1858, after Sultan Assyaidis Syarif Ismail Jalil Jalaluddin (1827-1864), ruler of the Kingdom of Siak Sri Indrapura, yielded some of his once-ruled land, Deli, Langkat, and Serdang. Sumatra, like Deli, Langkat,and Serdang, were subject to the Sultan of Siak.
The British merchants on the island Penang feared that under control of the Dutch the Siak dependencies would exclude British traders from the North Sumatra pepper trade of Asahan,Deli and Langkat.Apparently, the local indigenous rulers shared the same fear; so repeated appeals for protection were addressed to the Governor of Singapore by: the Sultan of Deli in 1861, the Raja of Serdang and the Sultan of Aceh in 1862 and in 1863 by the Sultan of Asahan.
1862 - The Governor of Singapore sent the Resident Councillor of Penang to Deli and Langkat in 1862 to secure redress for alleged wrongs inflicted on British subjects. Then the Dutch decided to announce their territorial claims and, in 1862, the Dutch colonial administration arranged political contracts with the Siak dependencies Deli, Langkat and Serdang; these contracts were counter-signed by the Sultan of Siak.
1864- But the real challenge to establish the Dutch colonial presence in this region of Sumatra occurred in 1864. The Resident Elisa Netscher arrived in the capital of Siak Sri Indrapura to solve (in the terms of the colonial administration)the earnest problems between the Sultan and his indigenous advisers. Netscher appointed the younger brother of the Sultan, Sjarif Kasim Abdoeldapalit Saifoedin, the new ruler of Siak.
The last Sultan of Siak abdicates(to relinquish power or responsibility formally)?.
1889 - The 11th Sultan Syarif Hasyim Abdul Jalil Syarifuddin(1889 ?- 1915) built the Moorish style palace of Siak Sultan, 120 km up stream from Pekanbaru on Siak River, in 1889. Now a museum.
1915 - 12th Sultan Syarif Kasim Tsani (Sultan Syarif Kasim II)(Assayaidis Syarif Kasim Abdul Jalil Syaifuddin)from 1915 to 1945.
Sultan Ismail yang berkuasa di Riau secara tiba-tiba diserang oleh gerombolan Inggeris dengan pimpinannya bernama Adam Wilson. Berhubung pada waktu itu kekuatannya terbatas maka Sultan Ismail meminta perlindungan pada Belanda. Sejak saat itu terbukalah kesempatan bagi Belanda untuk menguasai Kerajaan Siak Sri Indrapura yang rajanya adalah Sultan Ismail. Pada tanggal 1 Februari 1858 Belanda mendesak Sultan Ismail untuk menandatangani perjanjian agar daerah taklukan kerajaan Siak Sri Indrapura termasuk Deli, Langkat dan Serdang di Sumatera Timur masuk kekuasaan Belanda. Karena daerah Deli telah masuk kekuasaan Belanda otomatislah Kampung Medan menjadi jajahan Belanda, tapi kehadiran Belanda belum secara fisik menguasai Tanah Deli.
Pada tahun 1858 juga Elisa Netscher diangkat menjadi Residen Wilayah Riau dan sejak itu pula dia mengangkat dirinya menjadi pembela Sultan Ismail yang berkuasa di kerajaan Siak. Tujuan Netscher itu adalah dengan duduknya dia sebagai pembela Sultan Ismail secara politis tentunya akan mudah bagi Netscher menguasai daerah taklukan kerajaan Siak yakni Deli yang di dalamnya termasuk Kampung Medan Putri.
Chronological list of rulers in Siak Kingdom
1723 Siak state founded (separated from Johor-Riau).
1791 Banu Syihab dynasty installed.
1 Feb 1858 Dutch protectorate.
1723 - 1740 Abdul Jalil Rahmat Shah (b. c.1700 - d. 1746)
1740 - 23 Nov 1760 Mahmud Abdul Jalil Jalaluddin Shah (b. 1723 - d. 1760)
23 Nov 1760 - 16 Jan 1761 Ismail Abdul Jalil Jalaluddin Shah (b. bf.1746 - d. 1781)
16 Jan 1761 - 1766 Abdul Jalil Alamuddin Riayat Shah (b. c.1712 - d. 1765)
1766 - 19 Aug 1779 Muhammad Ali Abdul Jalil Muazzam (d. 1779)
19 Aug 1779 - 31 Jul 1781 Ismail Abdul Jalil Jalaluddin Shah (s.a.)
31 Jul 1781 - Feb 1797 Yahya Abdul Jalil Muzaffar Shah (b. 1760 - d. af.1804)
Feb 1797 - 1811 Saiyid Ali bin Uthman Abdul (b. 17.. - d. 1821)
1811 - 1827 Ibrahim bin Saiyid Ali Abdul (d. 1827)
18.. - 1827 Saiyid Ali + Tengku Besar -Regents
1827 - 1864 Ismail bin Muhammad Abdul Jalil (b. c.1819 - d. 1864)
1827 - 1840 Saiyid Ali + Tengku Besar -Regents
1864 - 1889 Syarif Kasim I bin Muhammad Abdul (d. 1889)
1889 - Apr 1908 Yang Dipertuan Besar Syarif Hasyim (d. 1908)
Abdul Jalil Saifuddin
Apr 1908 - 26 Jan 1946 Yang Dipertuan Besar Syarif Kasim (b. 1892 - d. 1968)II Abdul Jalil Saifuddin
Note: Two days after the surrender of Japan, on 17th August 1945, Sukarno, an influential nationalist leader, declared independence and was appointed president.[Indonesia become a republic. Sultan of Siak abdicates his power.
(Extract from the official website of Siak sub district, in Bahasa Indonesia)
Kerajaan Siak Sri Indrapura didirikan pada tahun 1723 oleh Raja Kecik yang bergelar Sultan Abdul Jalil Rahmat Syah putera Raja Johor (Sultan Mahmud Syah) dengan istrinya Encik Pong, dengan pusat kerajaan berada di Buantan. Konon nama Siak berasal dari nama sejenis tumbuh-tumbuhan yaitu siak-siak yang banyak terdapat di situ.
Sebelum kerajaan Siak berdiri, daerah Siak berada dibawah kekuasaan Johor. Yang memerintah dan mengawasi daerah ini adalah raja yang ditunjuk dan di angkat oleh Sultan Johor. Namun hampir 100 tahun daerah ini tidak ada yang memerintah. Daerah ini diawasi oleh Syahbandar yang ditunjuk untuk memungut cukai hasil hutan dan hasil laut.
Pada awal tahun 1699 Sultan Kerajaan Johor bergelar Sultan Mahmud Syah II mangkat dibunuh Magat Sri Rama, istrinya yang bernama Encik Pong pada waktu itu sedang hamil dilarikan ke Singapura, terus ke Jambi. Dalam perjalanan itu lahirlah Raja Kecik dan kemudian dibesarkan di Kerajaan Pagaruyung Minangkabau.
Sementara itu pucuk pimpinan Kerajaan Johor diduduki oleh Datuk Bendahara tun Habib yang bergelar Sultan Abdul Jalil Riayat Syah.
Setelah Raja Kecik dewasa, pada tahun 1717 Raja Kecik berhasil merebut tahta Johor. Tetapi tahun 1722 Kerajaan Johor tersebut direbut kembali oleh Tengku Sulaiman ipar Raja Kecik yang merupakan putera Sultan Abdul Jalil Riayat Syah.
Dalam merebut Kerajaan Johor ini, Tengku Sulaiman dibantu oleh beberapa bangsawan Bugis. Terjadilah perang saudara yang mengakibatkan kerugian yang cukup besar pada kedua belah pihak, maka akhirnya masing-masing pihak mengundurkan diri. Pihak Johor mengundurkan diri ke Pahang, dan Raja Kecik mengundurkan diri ke Bintan dan seterusnya mendirikan negeri baru di pinggir Sungai Buantan (anak Sungai Siak). Demikianlah awal berdirinya kerajaan Siak di Buantan.
Namun, pusat Kerajaan Siak tidak menetap di Buantan. Pusat kerajaan kemudian selalu berpindah-pindah dari kota Buantan pindah ke Mempura, pindah kemudian ke Senapelan Pekanbaru dan kembali lagi ke Mempura. Semasa pemerintahan Sultan Ismail dengan Sultan Assyaidis Syarif Ismail Jalil Jalaluddin (1827-1864) pusat Kerajaan Siak dipindahkan ke kota Siak Sri Indrapura dan akhirnya menetap disana sampai akhirnya masa pemerintahan Sultan Siak terakhir.
Pada masa Sultan ke-11 yaitu Sultan Assayaidis Syarief Hasyim Abdul Jalil Syaifuddin yang memerintah pada tahun 1889 ? 1908, dibangunlah istana yang megah terletak di kota Siak dan istana ini diberi nama Istana Asseraiyah Hasyimiah yang dibangun pada tahun 1889.
Pada masa pemerintahan Sultan Syarif Hasyim ini Siak mengalami kemajuan terutama dibidang ekonomi. Dan masa itu pula beliau berkesempatan melawat ke Eropa yaitu Jerman dan Belanda. Setelah wafat, beliau digantikan oleh putranya yang masih kecil dan sedang bersekolah di Batavia yaitu Tengku Sulung Syarif Kasim dan baru pada tahun 1915 beliau ditabalkan sebagai Sultan Siak ke-12 dengan gelar Assayaidis Syarif Kasim Abdul Jalil Syaifuddin dan terakhir terkenal dengan nama Sultan Syarif Kasim Tsani (Sultan Syarif Kasim II).
Bersamaan dengan diproklamirkannya Kemerdekaan Republik Indonesia, beliau pun mengibarkan bendera merah putih di Istana Siak dan tak lama kemudian beliau berangkat ke Jawa menemui Bung Karno dan menyatakan bergabung dengan Republik Indonesia sambil menyerahkan Mahkota Kerajaan serta uang sebesar Sepuluh Ribu Gulden.
Dan sejak itu beliau meninggalkan Siak dan bermukim di Jakarta. Baru pada tahun 1960 kembali ke Siak dan mangkat di Rumbai pada tahun 1968.
Beliau tidak meninggalkan keturunan baik dari Permaisuri Pertama Tengku Agung maupun dari Permaisuri Kedua Tengku Maharatu.
Pada tahun 1997 Sultan Syarif Kasim II mendapat gelar Kehormatan Kepahlawanan sebagai seorang Pahlawan Nasional Republik Indonesia. Makam Sultan Syarif Kasim II terletak ditengah Kota Siak Sri Indrapura tepatnya disamping Mesjid Sultan yaitu Mesjid Syahabuddin.
Diawal Pemerintahan Republik Indonesia, Kabupaten Siak ini merupakan Wilayah Kewedanan Siak di bawah Kabupaten Bengkalis yang kemudian berubah status menjadi Kecamatan Siak. Barulah pada tahun 1999 berubah menjadi Kabupaten Siak dengan ibukotanya Siak Sri Indrapura berdasarkan UU No. 53 Tahun 1999.
The controversy on the origin of Raja Kechil
Note: For students and readers below 18 years, it is advised to avoid the article, as it may contain some historical adult content. The extract is merely to provide the controvesy on the origin of Raja Kechil, given from both side(Raja Kechil and Bendahara rivals)
In the Siak Chronicle, Sultan Mahmud of Johore, leaves the Bendahara, or Chief Advisor, to govern the kingdom. The Sultan is childless because he loathes having sex with a normal female. His partner is a fairy who is invisible to other court dwellers. He hates the sight of any good-looking woman, especially when his fairy wife is around. One day, the Sultan, in a moment of madness which the scribe attributes to the appearance of a new moon, slits open the stomach of a pregnant woman because she has taken, without his prior permission, a slice of a jackfruit, given to him by one of his subjects. He wants to confirm whether the unborn baby is enjoying the fruit, and the ripped stomach reveals a baby sucking it. The woman's death angers her husband, Megat Seri Rama, who then conspires with the Bendahara to kill the Sultan. At the eve of the ruler's death, just as he is about to go to bed, the king orders Encik Apung to massage his feet. The fairy wife has left his chamber because she knows of his impending death. At about dawn, the Sultan is suddenly sexually aroused, and ejaculates, and he orders Encik Apung to swallow his semen: "Hey Apung, if you want to conceive my son, swallow my semen, and keep your pregnancy a secret so that the seed of Raja Iskandar Syah in this Malay land lives on, and I will have an heir" (Hikayat Siak, 112). She scoops it to her mouth, and instantly becomes pregnant, says the scribe, thanks to the will of Allah. The very next day, Megat Seri Rama, yelling out "I commit treason" stabs the Sultan as he is being carried on a retainer's shoulders, giving him the title "the Sultan who died being borne aloft." Just before he dies, the Sultan manages to get his religious officers to write a letter revealing Encik Apung's pregnancy. Through regicide, the Bendahara of non-royal descent makes himself king, but mindful of the possibility of the Sultan's sexual liaisons with the ladies-in-waiting, examines all of them with the aid of the midwife. Encik Apung gives her oath that she will disown her child so that he will not claim the throne, and after her son is born, asks her father to give him away. When the child, Raja Kecik, temporarily regains his father's throne many years later, he is deeply distressed to learn that his mother, Encik Apung, has just passed away without having seen his face:
When he heard that his mother has passed away, he wept. He came forward to kiss her. Then he ordered a royal burial ceremony, as was expected for the royal family. And a Quran reader read at her resting place for forty days, and Raja Kecik gave alms to poor people. That was how it was. (Hikayat Siak, 127)
The Precious Gift gives three versions of Encik Apung's conception of the Sultan's child:
There are many discrepancies and mistakes among the genealogies and chronicles concerning Raja Kecik's origins. According to the Siak Chronicle, Raja Kecik was the son of the Ruler who dies being borne aloft, who was killed at Kota Tinggi by Megat Seri Rama. His mother was Encik Pung, the daughter of the Laksamana. Just before His Majesty died, it is said Encik Pung ate his semen. While His Majesty lusted after his fairy wife, his semen flowed out, and he ordered Encik Pung to eat it. Thus, so it is said, Encik Pung became pregnant.Some of the histories say that when His Majesty died, his penis stood erect and no one dared to bury him. All the dignitaries were consulted as to the reason for this strange occurrence. The palace residents said that His Majesty had desired Encik Pung as he died. The dignitaries all interpreted this as signifying that His Majesty was afraid he would not leave behind any descendants of his own line, so it is said that at that very moment they ordered Encik Pung to have sexual intercourse with His Majesty. Only when this was finished did His Majesty's penis relax. Encik Pung then became pregnant. Another history, that from Trengganu, mentions that Encik Pung was said to be already pregnant when his Majesty had her. (Precious Gift, 22)
The child carried by Encik Apung is Raja Kecik, who sets up the genealogy of the kingdom of Siak, having failed to regain his father's throne from the old Bendahara. Encik Apung is crucial because she is the mother of the child, which neither scribe doubts. Who fathers the child, however, is suspect.
On the other hand, the scribe of the Precious Gift, writing on behalf of the rival house, doubts Raja Kecik's paternity. By giving three versions of how the child is conceived, he implies that the first two methods are highly unlikely to have produced a child, while the third version raises the possibility of Encik Apung's promiscuity. The scribe discredits the woman in order to tarnish Raja Kecik's claim to the Johore throne.
It is obvious that the Precious Gift is produced to negate the Siak Chronicle. Reading from Bakhtin's notion of the dialogic nature of an utterance, the Precious Gift obviously "derives shape and meaning ... from the social situation in which [the] utterance appears," (41) because the scribe comes from the Bugis clan which has teamed up with the Johor Bendahara in their effort to drive Raja Kecik away. The fact that he recounts three separate stories belittles Raja Kecik's grandeur in the Siak Chronicle. They raise questions about his genealogy. The Bugis scribe wants to keep the record straight, and anticipates future response by appearing to strictly adhere to bare facts. He accomplishes his mission by taking extra care with his dates, unlike the Siak scribe whose narrative does not rely on specifying historical detail. The scribe of the Precious Gift thus directs his audience to a set of meanings which coincide with the ideology of the dominant party. That is, it asserts that the Bugis clan has justifiably collaborated with the Bendahara to establish another legitimate royal patrilineage. The scribe, however, suppresses the fact that the dynasty is founded on regicide, a crime considered heinous to Malay subjects. Megat Seri Rama and the Bendahara are guilty of derhaka, or treason against their ruler, but the Bugis scribe only mentions this in passing when he alludes to the fate of Megat Seri Rama whom the Sultan kills, even as he is being stabbed by the angry husband. The Siak scribe is more specific about the traitor's fate: "His Majesty chased after Megat Seri Rama but could not overtake the man. So he hurled his kris, hitting Megat Seri Rama's toes, who became paralysed with pain. And with the will of Allah, grass began to grow from the wound, and for four years, Megat Seri Rama neither lived nor died, made to suffer such excruciating pain for being derhaka" (Hikayat Siak, 112). The Bugis scribe, however, is mute about the retribution meted out to Megat Seri Rama, drawing attention instead to Encik Apung's sexuality. By doing this, he lulls his audience into endorsing Bugis's entrenchment in the politics of Peninsula Malay states. The Bugis people, being immigrants from the Celebes, have to justify their political dominance in the Malay courts which causes rifts between indigenous Malays. Thus, the scribe is politically conscious of his role in legitimising his clan's political involvement.
(extract from Coping with Silence: Feminist Dialogics and Malay Court Chronicles, by Ruzy Hashim, University of Otago, NZ)
Siak is a regency (kabupaten) of Riau Province, Indonesia. It is located at East Sumatra. It has an area of 8,556.09 km² and population of 312,536 (in 2006). It is within the growth triangle of Indonesia-Malaysia-Singapore.
The regency is divided into 13(14?) subdistricts (kecamatan). The seat of the regency is located at Siak Sri Indrapura. The 14 subdistricts or kecamatan are Bunga Raya • Dayun • Kandis • Kerinci Kanan • Koto Gasip • Lubuk Dalam • Minas • Siak • Sungai Apit • Sungai Mandau • Tualang, Mempura, Sabak Auh, and Pusako(source: http://www.siakkab.go.id/)
Sg Siak(Siak River)
The name of Siak was derived from Siak River,which is the biggest in the district,the river provide for transportation, but is also potential for flood along the river.
Other than Sungai Siak, the district also has other rivers : Sungai Mandau, Sungai Gasib, Sungai Apit, Sungai Tengah, Sungai Rawa, Sungai Buantan, Sungai Limau, and Sungai Bayam. There are also lakes in the district,the bigger are: Danau Ketialau, Danau Air Hitam, Danau Besi, Danau Tembatu Sonsang, Danau Pulau Besar, Danau Zamrud, Danau Pulau Bawah, Danau Pulau Atas, dan Tasik Rawa. Note: Danau and Tasik are both Indonesia language for lakes.
1.Siak Sultanate's Park
Sultan Syarif Hasyim Abdul Jalil Syarifuddin built this Moorish style palace of Siak Sultan, 120 km up stream from Pekanbaru on Siak River, in 1889. Now a museum, the palace contains sultanate's royal paraphernalia and other items of historical interest. Established during the 16th century, Siak Sri Inderapura sultanate lasted until 1946, when it became victim to the popular upheavals following the Japanese surrender at the close of World War II.
2. Siak Sri Indrapura
Siak Sri Indrapura was the centre of an Islamite Malayan kingdom, which enjoyed its golden age from the 18th through 20th century. Sultan Abdul Jalil Rakhmad Syah founded the kingdom in 1725. He was the first in a family tree of 12 sultans who would reign until 1945. In November 1945, the last sultan, Sultan Syarif Kasyim II, sent a cable to the president of Republic of Indonesia stating his loyalty to the republic, and he contributed his properties to the struggle of independence.
1.Official website, http://www.siakkab.go.id/
2.Hikayat Siak. ed. Muhammad Yusoff Hashim, Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka, 1992.
3.Ahmad, Raja Ali Haji. The Precious Gift: Tuhfat al-Nafis. Trans. Virginia Matheson and Barbara Watson Andaya, Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press, 1982.
4. Coping with Silence: Feminist Dialogics and Malay Court Chronicles(1997), by Ruzy Hashim, University of Otago, NZ, published in Deep South v.3 n.2 (Winter 1997)
5. THE HISTORY OF SERDANG BEDAGAI, http://serdangbedagaikab.go.id/english/index2.php?option=com_content&do_pdf=1&id=97
6. Indonesian Traditional States I,
7.Syair Perang Siak, by Donald J. Goudie, Monograph 17,http://www.mbras.org.my/monographs/M017.html
8. MEDAN Urban development by planters and entrepreneurs.1870-1940(1995),by Cor Passchier, published in 'Issues in Urban development', CNWS Leiden University, 1995, some revised in 2008. http://www.pac-nl.org/downloads/medanurbandevelopmentcp08.pdf