Tuesday, February 23, 2010


Not many people know the history of Malay state? Raman?

The Raja states(Muang)

Formerly the tract of South Thailand was divided into a number of states, each of which was ruled by a chief (Siamese, Chao Muang; Malay, raja), who held his title from the king of Siam, but, subject to a few restrictions, the raja can conducted the affairs of his state in accordance with his own desires; the office of chief, moreover, was hereditary, subject always to the approval of the suzerain.

The states formed two groups: a northern, including Langsuan, Chaya, Nakhon Sri Tammarat, Songkla, Renawng, Takoapa, Pang Nga, Tongka and Trang, in which the Siamese element predominated and of which the chiefs were usually Siamese or Chinese; and a southern, including Palean, Satun (Setul), Patani, Raman, Jering, Sai (Teloban), Re Nge (Legeh), Yala (Jalor) and Nong Chik, in which the population was principally Malay and the ruler also Malay. Four other states of the southern group, Kelantan, Trengganu, Kedah and Perlis, of which the population is entirely Malay, passed from Siamese to British protection in 1909 under Anglo-Siamese Treaty.

With the gradual consolidation of the Siamese kingdom all the states of the northern group have been incorporated as ordinary provinces of Siam, the hereditary Chao Muang having died or been pensioned and replaced by officials of the Siamese Civil Service, while the states themselves now constitute provinces of the administrative divisions of Chumpon, Nakhon Sri Tammarat and Phuket.

The states of the southern group, however, retain their hereditary rulers, each of whom presides over a council and governs with the aid of a Siamese assistant commissioner and with a staff of Siamese district officials, subject to the general control of high commissioners under whom the states are grouped. This southern group, with a total area of about 7000 sq. m. and a population of 375,000, constitutes the Siamese Malay States

The seven Malay states of Nawng Chik, Patani, Jering, Yala (Jalor), Sai (Teloban), Raman and Ra-nge (Legeh) were constituted from the old state of Patani at the beginning of the 19th century. In 1906 they were reunited to form the Patani administrative division of Siam, but each state retains its Malay ruler, who governs jointly with a Siamese officer under the direction of the Siamese high commissioner, and many of the ancient privileges and customs of Malay government are preserved.

In 1909, Songkhla was formally annexed by Siam as part of Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909 negotiated with the British Empire. Songkhla was the scene of heavy fighting when the Imperial Japanese Army invaded Thailand on 8 December 1941.

The name Raman is actually the Thai corruption of Reman (Jawi: رمان), its original Malay name. Mueang Raman was one of the seven towns, into which the Sultanate of Patani was split in the beginning of the 19th century to reduce the power of the Sultan of Patani after a series of rebellions against the Siamese rulers. Tuan Mansor was appointed as the first ruler and resided in Kota Baru.

In 1917 the district was renamed from Raman to Kota Baru, the seat of the administration. In 1938 it was named back to its historical name.

The name of Raman makes its first entry in the colonial record in 1818 at a time when Penang Governor John Bannerman was endeavouring to obtain a commercial treaty with the chiefs of the Kroh district, who were subjects of a “Rajah of Raman”. John Anderson would note this Raman as part of an ill-defined “Patani Country” in 1824. Two years later Henry Burney would describe this land-locked polity in the interior of the peninsula as one of fourteen chieftainships that paid tribute to Siam via the superintending states of Nakhon Sri Thammaraat and Songkhla. To the British in Penang, the history of the polity was vague. Any concern for this subject was overshadowed by the more immediate hope that this tin-rich and strategically placed Malay negeri would soon form part of a British sphere of influence in the northern straits region.

It is evident that Raman’s emergence was tied to the disintegration of Perak authority in the upper Perak river watershed in the late eighteenth century and corresponding political disturbances in the Patani lowlands. Precisely which of these factors was more important to the emergence of Raman is unknown. Malay sources such as the Hikayat Patani tend to see the
emergence of the polity as a unilateral Siamese initiative, a product of Bangkok’s decision to dissolve the ancient polity of Patani in 1810 and replace it with a more manageable confederation of petty states under the supervision of Songkhla. According to this view, Raman was created by the stroke of a Siamese pen and the weight of its armies. It simply appears, a new polity with its capital located some twenty miles upstream from the mouth of the Patani River at Kota Bharu, where the first Raja of Raman, Raja Tuan Loh The, resided.

As early as 1780, both the Perak court and Dutch observers had noted the stirrings of an increasingly independent group of chiefs in the upper Perak valley. By the mid-1790s, the watershed region was home to an increasing number of largely autonomous settlements, many of which were established by refugees fleeing from disorders in the Patani lowlands. Precisely how Tuan Loh Teh climbed to the top of this scattered band of refugees is unclear. Early-twentieth-century oral histories described him as someone who “gathered together a body of fighting men and declared himself the independent Raja of the Upper Patani valley” in the first decade of the nineteenth century. Whether genealogical links to the Patani court facilitated his rise is unknown, but by 1808, when the Siamese started to break Patani into several states, Tuan Loh Teh already controlled the tin rich interior. Given that the Bangkok court was generally in no position to choose local leaders in the outer provinces, the Siamese most likely confirmed—rather than inaugurated—Tuan Loh The’s rule. This is an important distinction that reverses the assumed relative power imbalance between local actors and external suzerains. Rather than being a product of Patani’s demise, the emergence of Raman was probably a contributor to the declining fortunes of this once-great Malay polity, Patani Kingdom.

Consolidating Control over the Kroh Plateau
By 1818 Tuan Loh Teh was growing quite wealthy from his control of the valuable tin resources of the Kroh plateau. According to figures supplied by the Juragen Sulaiman in 1818 (an associate of Penang’s John Anderson), the Perak side of the watershed was producing around 1,500 bahar of tin a year, tin which fetched up to $54 a bahar in Penang. Tuan Loh Teh taxed tin miners at $24 a bahar and additionally demanded 50 percent of output as tax-in-kind. This tribute was then sold at the market rate in Penang.10 While the gross profit was eroded significantly by transportation costs and the division of profits amongst local officials, the tin industry provided this upstart Raja with a handsome source of income with which to consolidate power over the strategic Patani-Perak watershed.
The profits inevitably prompted interest from neighbouring polities. The Perak court’s attempts to reassert control over the Kroh mines would disrupt the industry in the late 1820s. Opportunities to exploit valuable mineral deposits suffered further due to a number of local conflicts in the 1830s. In 1831-32 and 1838-39, supporters of the deposed ex-Raja of Kedah campaigned violently against Songkhla. The development of export routes down to the coast from the watershed had the unfortunate effect of eroding the isolation that had formerly given Raman a degree of protection from lowland disturbances. The Raja of Raman’s successful manipulation of the Muda and Patani Rivers as a means to export tin and cattle invited reverse flows in the shape of invading forces. Kedah rebels engaged in campaigns against Songkhla and Nakhon in 1831-32 and 1838-9 devastated the watershed zone.11 The pillaging that was typical of local conflicts, where conscripts often measured the success of a campaign in terms of the
booty won, severely disrupted mining activity. Labourers fled southwards to the relative safety of coastal Perak and the routes that conveyed tin down to the coast became the province of bandits. Newbold’s figures for Kedah tin in the year ending 1836—probably the most peaceful of this entire decade—show that a mere 200 bahar was exported from Kuala Muda, while next door in Perak—the beneficiary of refugee flight—2,500 bahar was produced during the same period.12 Where tin mining continued, low labour supply and the general insecurity of property arising from troubles in the Kedah and Patani lowlands kept production to a minimum.
In the 1840s, the conclusion of disputes over the Kedah throne ushered in a period of relative calm. The mines returned to productivity under the watchful gaze of Toh Nang Patani, sister of the second Raja of Raman, Tuan Kundur. The mines were being worked profitability by mid-century and might have expanded much faster but for the opening up of the Larut tin fields in Perak which soaked up the limited labour supplies. In the 1860s, however, an emerging alliance between the Rajas of Raman and Penangbased Chinese miners once more ensured adequate labour for the Kroh plateau mines.
In this decade Tuan Timung (the third Raja of Raman) went into the tin business with Fong Kwi, alias Dato Chawan, a Chinese towkay from Penang. By the mid-1860s the primary mine at Klian Intan was producing 900 piculs (54,000 tonnes) per year for a profit of $30,000.13 Further expansion would be linked to events taking place on the other side of the watershed where rivals to the Penang market were also keen to exploit the wealth of the interior.

The Patani Kapitan
The ties that would develop between the tin mines of Raman and Chinese merchantadministrators
in the east coast port of Patani were intimately related to the 1838-39 attack on Songkhla led by Tengku Mohamed Sa’ad. At the time of the 1838 conflict, the governor of Songkhla was Thien Seng, a second-generation member of the Wu dynasty. During his reign, a number of Hokkien immigrants had settled in Songkhla. During the 1838 siege, one of these immigrants organised his clansmen as defence volunteers and subsequently helped to win a major engagement against besieging Kedah troops.19 As a reward for his contribution to the defence of the city, this
immigrant, named Pui Sae Tan, was appointed by the governor of Songkhla as the kapitan of the Chinese community in neighbouring Patani. Along with hundreds of kinsmen, he moved south with a new Siamese title and established a home for himself and his followers on high ground near the river mouth.
The post of kapitan opened a number of doors for an enterprising merchant like Pui Sae Tan. In Patani the kapitan held the revenue farms on opium and gambling and responsibility for collecting the Chinese poll tax. He was also responsible for sending tax revenues back to the governor of Songkhla. Pui Sae Tan was evidently so good at the latter job that he was granted several mining concessions up the Patani River, within the states of Raman and neighbouring Yala. Like the Kroh Plateau mines, these were exceedingly rich in both tin and galena (lead sulphate). Records of the ninety-acre Laboo mining leases, taken up in 1844 and 1847, estimated it contained 2.5 million cubic yards of alluvial tin ore.

The period during which Pui Sae Tan developed his concessions was a prosperous one for Patani. By 1848, the volume of shipping passing between Singapore and east coast ports like Patani and Songkhla had risen five-fold from a low point of the mid- 1830s.21 Pui Sae Tan’s family were clearly connected to this British port, for one of his daughters had married a Singaporean. But while we know the town had grown in population with many foreign businessmen settling there, specific data on the operation of mining interests in the watershed and linkages to external markets is lacking. By Pui Sae Tan’s death in 1878, however, the mines under his family’s control were thriving. Tin and lead formed Patani’s principal exports, the trade of which was controlled by the Chinese. Upon his death, Pui Sae Tan’s eldest son, Ju Meng, took control of a lucrative mining business that included the rich Tham Thalu mine in Yala. In the early 1880s Cameron estimated that Tham Thalu was one of the richest mineral deposits on
the entire Malayan peninsula. In 1883, as he drew a map that he hoped would prove British claims to the mines of Klian Intan in Raman, Hugh Low was similarly drawn to the other side of the watershed where he simply marked Tham Thalu as “The Great Mine”.

Aside from tin, Ju Meng also held the Patani opium farm, a profitable enterprise in a province where the drug was smoked to great excess. Cameron described Ju Meng as “a man of great force of character [who] exercises more power throughout the Patani provinces than any other individual”. Both he and his brother Ju Laay, alias Phrajiin Khananurak, were connected by marriage to Chao Phraya Songkhla. Although Ju Laay held the post of kapitan, both he and the Raja were subordinate to Ju Meng, a clear indication that control over the riches of the interior now surpassed that of the coastal regions. The post of kapitan was still lucrative, however. Ju Laay was the master of shipping, collector of customs and inland duties, and magistrate of the Chinese community. The position gave him real advantages in regard to importing labour and opium for the mines further upstream, and for exporting tin to Bangkok or Singapore. As late as 1957, the family still controlled their own kongsi, which managed labour
importation for the various kongsi houses on mining concessions in the watershed. Through their control of these two important posts, these two sons of Pui Sae Tan played an important role in the mining economy, from extraction through to export.

List of Raja of Raman

1. Raja Tuan Loh The,
2. Raja Tuan Kundur.
3. Raja Tuan Timung
4. Raja Tuan Jagong

The Patani Kapitan

1. Pui Sae Tan alias Luang Samretkitjakornjaangwaang.
2. Ju Meng alias Luang Sunthornsithiloha, Pui Sae Tan’s eldest son,tax farmer of opium farm and tin mine concession
3. Ju Laay alias Phrajiin Khananurak, younger brother of Ju Meng. He was the master of shipping, collector of customs and inland duties, and magistrate of the Chinese
community . Both brothers connected by marriage to Chao Phraya Songkhla, the Na Songkhla family. The Raja of Rahman has monopoly on the elephants, as royal family. The Raja entered into commercial relationship with tin miners, as the elephants will transport the tin to Penang market, a overland trip of 20km, after that it must be transport by river, from Patani River to Muda River.

Related articles:


Old Street of Kuala Lumpur

Names of streets always change, some due to nationalism, the colonial names were all changed; but the new names did not reflect the history of the street or location. Old colonial English street names traced to the colonial history, whether you like it or hate it , it is still part of the national history. Nowaday, street names may be a tourist attraction, it has a lot of story to tell from the names of the streets. If we frequently changed the names of our streets, part of the history will be lost, which means tourist money......

Jalan Hang Tuah in Kuala Lumpur do no sound historical, but it will be great for Malacca. If the tourist ask what is the significance of Hang Tuah to the street in Kuala Lumpur, the tourist guide will have hard time to explain. Names cannot simply change, it must have historical significance....

List of KL Old Roads

Ampang Road - Jalan Ampang
Ampang Street - Leboh Ampang
Batu Road - Jalan Tuanku Abdul Rahman
Birch Road - Jalan Maharajalela
Bluff Road - Jalan Bukit Aman
Brickfields Road - Jalan Sambanthan
Campbell Road - Jalan Dang Wangi
Cecil Street - Jalan Hang Lekir
Church Street - Jalan Gereja
Clarke Street - Jalan Mahkamah Tinggi
Club Road - Jalan Parlimen
Cross Street - Jalan Silang
Dickson Street - Jalan Masjid India
Davidson Road - Jalan Hang Jebat
Foch Avenue - Jalan Cheng Lock
High Street - Jalan Bandar - Jalan Tun H S Lee
Holland Road - Jalan Mahkamah Persekutuan
Hospital Road - Jalan Chendersari
Java Street - Mountbatten Road - Jalan Tun Perak
Klyne Street - Jalan Hang Lekiu
Malacca Street - Jalan Melaka
Market Street - Leboh Pasar Besar
Old Market Square (Macao Street + Hokkien Street) - Medan Pasar
Parry Road - Jalan P Ramlee
Petaling Street - Jalan Petaling
Pudoh Street - Jalan Pudu
Rodger Street - Jalan Hang Kasturi
Shaw Road - Jalan Hang Tuah
Station Street - Jalan Balai Polis
Sultan Street - Jalan Sultan
Swettenham Road - Jalan Mahameru
Theatre Street - Jalan Panggong
Treacher Road - Jalan Sultan Ismail
Venning Road - Jalan Perdana
Victoria Avenue - Jalan Sultan Hishamuddin
Weld Road - Jalan Raja Chulan

Can you still remember the old names of the street? Where is Weld Road my friend? Remember Cold Storage?.....

Friday, February 12, 2010

Pattani Kingdom(ปัตตานี, 北大年)

Patani (Pattani) or Sultanate of Pattani is known to have been part of the ancient Srivijayan kingdom. It then covered approximately the area of the modern Thai provinces of Pattani, Yala, Narathiwat and much of the northern part of modern Malaysia. The King of Patani is believed to have been converted to Islam some time during the 11th century, the 6-7th century Hindu state of Pan Pan may or may not be related.

It is not known precisely when Patani was first founded, but evidence points to sometime in the fourteenth century. Local stories tell of a fisherman named Pak- tani who was sent by a king from the interior to survey the coast to find a place for an appropriate settlement. After he established a successful fishing outpost, other people moved to join him. The town soon grew into a prosperous trading center that continued to bear his name. The authors of the Hikayat Patani chronicle mentioned this story as untrue when they told their own tale of the king founding the city, but this latter story seems an attempt to undermine an already established tradition and gain more glory for its early rulers.

Like many of the small kingdoms in Southeast Asian history, Pattani broke away from an older ancient state. Most did not have their own written language, enjoyed only short periods of real independence and have long since disappeared.

The four southern provinces, collectively known as southern Thailand, are Patani, Narathiwat, Yala and Satun. These had their early origins under the rule of Langkasuka. The kingdom of Patani gradually replaced Langkasuka and the four provinces were incorporated into what is known as Patani Raya or Greater Patani. Tome Pires believed that the state of Patani was established as early as the 1390s. This is based on evidence of the relationship between the Siam kingdom and the Patani kingdom. One of the Thai kings of the period had married a daughter of one of the nobles of the Patani court. The fruit of this marriage was Tamagi who later became the ruler of Tumasik under Siam rule. Tamagi was later murdered by Parameswara, a Palembang prince who later became the founder of the Malay kingdom of Malacca. The news of the murder reached the King of Patani who immediately dispatched an armada to capture Parameswara. Parameswara., however, managed to escape through the Muar river and reached a place he subsequently called Malacca. Malacca was subsequently established in 1398 on the Malay Peninsula.

View Larger Map

Thus it is clear that Patani was already an established kingdom by the time Malacca was established. This fact is further corroborated by the Portuguese through the writings of one of its historians, Godinho de Eredia, in his book Declaracan de Mala e India Meridional written in 1613,:
“It is to be noted that the eastern coast of Ujontana was peopled and frequented before the other or western coast; thus the histories relate that Malayos inhabited Pattane and Pam before the foundation of Malacca. At that time the ruler of Pam governed Sycapura and the Monarch who resided in Pattane, the metropolis of the Malayos.”

The Islamization

Historians are inclined to date the coming of Islam to Patani to coincide with the coming of Islam to the whole of the Malay Archipelago i.e. at the end of the 13th century. This view is based upon the similar Islamic features of the gravestones of the King of Patani and Sultan al-Malik al-Saleh of the Pasai kingdom of northern Sumatera. This would mean that Patani had received Islam even before Malacca had been established.

Local historians put the date much earlier, as early as the 10th or the 11th century. This spread however did not occur at the level of the court, as the court only converted to Islam in 1457. Thus even though Patani received Islam much earlier than Malacca it did not become a Muslim empire due to the reluctance of the court to accept Islam at that early period.

This would mean that Patani had received Islam from missionaries from the old Malay kingdom of Langkasuka. Langkasuka in turn had received Islam from Campa which was another Muslim empire in the 11th and 12th century. The ruling families of the three kingdoms were close with intermarriage; however as regards faith, they were always separate with Patani not being a Muslim kingdom at that very early period.

The story of the conversion of the King of Patani is also recorded in the earliest record of the history of Patani, conveniently called “Tarikh al-Fatani”. The story begins with the illness of the King Paya Tunaqpa with no physician in the kingdom able to cure him. A Muslim preacher present in the town at the time decided to use the opportunity to help cure the king on condition that upon recovering, he would convert to Islam. The king agreed and upon recovering he converted to Islam and assumed the title of Sultan Ismail Syah Zillullah fi al-Alam. Thus began the reign of the Muslim kingdom of Patani in 1457.

Langkasuka 2nd century - 14th century

Langkasuka was a Hindu-Buddhist kingdom founded in the region as early as the second century. The historical record is sparse, but a Chinese Liang Dynasty record (c. 500 AD) refers to the kingdom of "Lang-ya-xiu" (Chinese: 狼牙脩) as being founded in the 1st century AD. As described in the Chinese chronicles, Langkasuka was thirty days' journey from east to west, and twenty from north to south, 24,000 li in distance from Guangzhou. Its capital was said to be surrounded by walls to form a city with double gates, towers and pavilions. The Buddhist monk Yi Jing mentioned encountering three Chinese monks who lived in Lang-chia-su.

The kingdom drew trade from Chinese, Indian, and local traders as a stopping place for ships bound for, or just arrived from, the Gulf of Thailand. Langkasuka reached its greatest economic success in the sixth and seventh centuries and afterward declined as a major trade center. Political circumstances suggest that by the eleventh century Chola invasion, Langkasuka was no longer a major port visited by merchants. However, much of the decline may be due to the silting up of its harbor, shown most poignantly today by the fact that the most substantial Langkasukan ruins rest approximately 15 kilometers from the sea.

The ancient Hindu-Malay empire of Langkasuka was centered in Pattani, today's southern Thailand, which encompasses of modern Malaysia states Kelantan, Terengganu and northern Kedah, as well as modern Thai provinces of Pattani (Patani in Malay), Yala (Jala), Narathiwat (Menara), Songkhla (Singgora) and Satun (Setul). Malay legends claim that Langkasuka was founded at Kedah, and later moved to Pattani.

The kingdom's designation in Chinese records changed over time: it was known as "Lang-ya-se-chia" during the Song dynasty (960-1279); "Long-ya-si-jiao" during the Yuan Dynasty (1279-1368); and "Lang-se-chia" during the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644), as evidenced by the Mao Kun map of Admiral Zheng He. The name "Langkasuka" was also mentioned in Malay and Javanese chronicles. Tamil sources name "Ilangasoka" as one of Rajendra Chola's conquests in his expedition against the Srivijaya empire. It was described as a kingdom that that was "undaunted in fierce battles".

In 515 AD King Bhagadatta first established relations with China, with further embassies sent in 523, 531 and 568. In the 12th century Langkasuka was a tributary to the Srivijaya empire, and around the 14th century it was replaced by the Pattani Kingdom.

Srivijaya(Hindu-Buddhist Empire)7th to 13th century

Srivijaya or Sriwijaya was an ancient Malay kingdom on the island of Sumatra, Southeast Asia which influenced much of the Southeast Asia. The earliest solid proof of its existence dates from the 7th century; a Chinese monk, I-Tsing, wrote that he visited Srivijaya in 671 for 6 months. The first inscription in which the name Srivijaya appears also dates from the 7th century, namely the Kedukan Bukit Inscription around Palembang in Sumatra, dated 683. The kingdom ceased to exist between 1200 and 1300 due to various factors, including the expansion of Majapahit.

Pattani became part of the Hindu-Buddhist Empire of Srivijaya, a maritime confederation based in Palembang. Srivijaya dominated trade in the South China Sea and exacted tolls on all traffic through the Straits of Malacca. Malay culture had substantial influence on the Khmer Empire, and the ancient city of Nakhon Pathom. Despite claims that the origins of the name Pattani means "this beach", it may been the same country known to the Chinese as Pan Pan. The kingdom adopted the name "Patani" under the rule of Sultan Ismail Shah. According to local folklore, he was finding a spot for the kingdom's new capital, and when he arrived to the place he liked best, he shouted "Pantai Ini!" which means in Malay, "This beach!" According to most accounts, this capital is thought to be today's modern Kru Se (Kampung Grisek).

Pan Pan?

Sukhothai(Siamese Kingdom)1238-1438-1583

In the 14th century, King Ramkhamhaeng the Great((c.1239 - 1317) of Sukhothai (also known as Pho Khun Ramkhamhaeng, Thai: พ่อขุนรามคำแหงมหาราช), occupied Nakhon Si Thammarat and its vassal states - including Pattani. Ramkhamhaeng’s government characterized the governance of Sukhothai kingdom – the patrocracy – in which the king is considered “father” and people “children”. He also encouraged the free trade. In 1378, the armies from Ayutthaya kingdom invaded and put Sukhothai under her tributary.

Prince Ramesuan or Somdet Phra Ramesuan Boromma Trailokanat Bopit สมเด็จพระราเมศวรบรมไตรโลกนาถบพิตร(1431-1488) was born in 1431 to King Borommaracha Thirat II or Chao Sam Phraya and his queen from the Kingdom of Sukhothai. He became the Uparaja (lit. Vice-king of crown prince) in 1438. When his cousin, Maha Dhammaracha IV (พระมหาธรรมราชาที่ 4) or Borommapan(บรมปาล)of Sukhothai who ruled from 1419 to 1438, died in 1438, Ramesuan was then technically the king of Sukhothai – though he was too young to be crowned. It was also the end of Phra Ruang Dynasty (1238-1368-1438). Upon reaching majority in 1446(?), Borommaracha II sent Ramesuan to Pitsanulok to assume the Sukhothai throne. Boormmaracha II died in 1448, Prince Ramesuan was then crowned as the king of Ayutthaya – thus a personal union between Sukhothai and Ayutthaya. The ruler of Ayutthaya also ruler of Sukhothai, he ruled from 1448-1488.

(Note: He was the ruler of Sukhothai from 1438 to 1488, ruler of Ayutthaya from 1448-1488, ruler of both from 1448-1488). In between 1448-1474, King Ramesuan's relative, a Sukhothai royalty and claimed to be the rightful king of Sukhothai. He allied with Lanna King, Tilokaraj and took Sukhothai. In 1474, King Ramesuan finally expelled the Lanna out of his kingdom,and rule Sokhothai again until 1488)

Ayutthaya(Siamese kingdom)1351-1767

The Thais conquered the isthmus during the thirteenth century. Their kingdom was a single unified state with Ayutthaya as a capital and many smaller vassal states under its control. Thus, they used a self-governing system whereby the vassal states and tributary provinces owed allegiance to the king of Ayutthaya, but otherwise ran their own affairs.

A sheikh from Kampong Pasai (presumeably a small community of traders from Pasai who lived on the outskirts of Patani) named Sa'id or Shafi'uddin, in various accounts, healed the king of a rare skin disease and after much negotiation (and recurrence of the disease), the king agreed to convert to Islam, adopting the name Sultan Ismail Shah. Afterward, all of the sultan's officials also converted. There is fragmentary evidence, however, that some local people had begun to convert prior to the king's conversion. First of all, the existence of a diasporic Pasai community near Patani shows that local people had regular, close contact with Muslims. But there are also travel reports, such as that of Ibn Battuta, and early Portuguese accounts that claimed Patani had an established Muslim community even prior to Melaka (which officially converted in 1413), which would suggest that non-courtiers, probably merchants who made contact with other emerging Muslims centers of the time, were the first to convert in the region.

During much of the fifteenth century Ayutthaya's energies were directed toward the Malay Peninsula, especially the trading port of Malacca, which fell under the rule of the Malacca Sultanate. Ayutthaya's sovereignty extended over Malacca and the Malay states south of Tambralinga (Nakorn Sri Thammarat). Ayutthaya helped to develop and stabilize the region, opening the way for the lucrative trade on the isthmus. This attracted Chinese merchants seeking specialty goods for the markets of China.

The sixteenth century witnessed the rise of Burma, which under an aggressive dynasty had overrun Chiang Mai and Laos and then made war on Ayutthaya. In 1569 Burmese forces, joined by Siamese rebels, captured and looted the city of Ayutthaya, carrying the royal family into captivity in Burma. Dhammaraja (reigned 1569-90), a Siam provincial governor who had aided the Burmese, was installed as vassal king at Ayutthaya. Thai independence was later restored by his son, King Naresuan the Great (reigned 1590-1605), who rebelled against the Burmese and by 1600 had driven them from the country.

During the massive Burmese attack from the north against the ancient Siamese kingdom of Ayutthaya, Pattani's Sultan Muzaffar Shah took this advantage and launched an attack on Ayutthaya in 1563. He however mysteriously died during battle.

Determined to prevent another act of treason like his father's, King Naresuan set about unifying the country's administration directly under the royal court at Ayutthaya. He ended the practice of nominating royal princes to govern Ayutthaya's provinces, assigning instead court officials who were expected to execute the policies handed down by the king. Thereafter, the royal princes were confined to the capital. Their power struggles continued, but were at court under the king's watchful eye. Even with King Naresuan's reforms, the power of the royal government over the next 150 years should not be overestimated. With the fall of Ayutthaya to the Burmese in 1569, Pattani had become virtually independent.

The coming of the Europeans

The coming of the Europeans, beginning with the Portuguese who had established themselves in Malacca in 1511, was used by the ruler of Pattani to gain alliance against the might of Siam. In 1517, the Portuguese, led by Quarte Coelho, came to Pattani to seek an audience with Sultan Ismail Syah. The result of such negotiations was trading rights and privileges for the Portuguese in exchange for Portuguese protection of Pattani from Siam

The port of Pattani at that time was one of the busiest and wealthiest ports in the region with trade from China, Japan, Portugal and later on the British, apart from the local traders. The materials on trade were gold, cotton, silk, spices, porcelain and pottery.

Pattani Golden Age(1584-1649/1688)

Pattani's golden age was during the reign of its four successive queens from 1584, known as Raja Hijau 1584-1616(The Green Queen), Raja Biru 1616-1624(The Blue Queen), Raja Ungu 1624-1635(The Purple Queen) and Raja Kuning 1635-1686 (The Yellow Queen), where the kingdom's economic and military strength was greatly increased and managed to fight off at least four Siamese invasions with the help of the eastern Malay kingdom of Pahang and the southern Malay Sultanate of Johore.

Chinese merchants, beginning with Cheng Ho in the period 1406-1433, played a major role in the rise of Patani as a regional trade center. They were soon joined by other groups such as the Portuguese in 1516, Japanese in 1592, Dutch in 1602, English in 1612, and of course a great number of Malay and Siamese merchants who worked throughout the area. The United East India Company and the English East India Company(EIC) established warehouses in Patani in 1603 and 1612, respectively, and carried out intense trading there. Patani was particularly viewed by European traders as a way of accessing the Chinese market.

After 1620, the Dutch and English both closed their warehouses, but a prosperous trade continued, mainly with the Chinese, Japanese, and Portuguese, for much of the rest of the century. Following the 1688 invasion by Ayudhya, political disorder ensued for the following half-century during which time local rulers were unable to quell the lawlessness that consumed the region. Most foreign merchants abandoned their trade in Patani at that time.

In 1630 the Pattani kingdom revolted against the King of Siam, Prasat Thong. In 1630 Patani was ruled by a strong headed princess, Raja Ungu(Purple Queen), who was the former wife of the King of Pahang, a state further south in the Malay Peninsula. She came to the throne rejecting the title Phra Nang Chao-Yang or Raja Nang Cayam given by the King of Siam. Instead she assumed the title Paduka Syah Alam as an act of defiance against King Prasat Thong.

Her ascension to the throne coincided with the coup at the Siam court of Ayuthia by Prasat Thong(สมเด็จพระเจ้าปราสาททอง)who later became 1st king of Prasat Thong dynasty(the 4th Dynasty of Ayutthaya kingdom, who ruled form 1629-1656. Raja Ungu rejected Prasat Thong's coronation and declared Patani to be independent from Siam and refused to send the Bunga Emas(Gold flower) as a token of subservience to Siam. The newly crowned king was upset with the turn of events and eventually declared war on Patani on the pretext that Patani had made an unlawful alliance with the Portuguese to destroy Siam.

In 1631 Raja Ungu despatched her Pattani army to Ligor to liberate it from Siam control. This infuriated the King of Siam even more. In the aftermath of the battle, the Patani army captured two ships belonging to Siam including two Dutch traders. Ligor was recaptured by Siamese forces. However, the two Dutch traders were still missing. This incident brought the Dutch, who were hitherto neutral observers, into the war on the side of Siam.

Following an agreement with the Dutch that they would come at the appointed time of the battle against Pattani, the Siam army began its assault on Pattani in May 1634. The 60,000 strong Siam army could not withstand the assault on their own against the combined forces of Pattani and the Portuguese. As the Dutch was nowhere to be seen, the Siamese army conceded defeat and returned to Ayuthia where the general of the army was later beheaded on the orders of the king. The Dutch finally arrived in June after the battle had long been lost to Pattani. The king was furious and ordered that the whole of the Dutch fleet be confined to their quarters. It was only after constant persuasion that they were released with the excuse that they had engaged and destroyed 6 Pattani ships as the reason for their delay.

Two years later in 1636, the Siamese army managed to reorganize itself for another assault on Pattani. This however was never undertaken due to two main factors. The Dutch were ordered by the head of the VOC not to be involved in local feuds. The second factor was the negotiation instigated by the Sultan of Kedah, Sultan Rijalluddin Muhammed Syah (1619-1652). The Sultan became the middle man between Siam and Pattani, thus resolving the issue without any bloodshed. The agreement stated that Siam would not attack Patani and Pattani in turn would send Bunga Emas as a symbol of friendship. The Sultanah disagreed with the Bunga Emas and instead suggested that Pattani send an ambassador to Siam. The representative of the king of Siam, Phraya Phrakhlang, without the backing of the Dutch hesitatingly agreed. Thus the revolt ended with the partial victory of the kingdom of Pattani under the rule of one of its most famous Sultanahs, Sultanah Paduka Syah Alam.

The death of the Sultanah ended the hostility towards Siamese rule. Her daughter Raja Kuning(Yellow Queen)regained the Siam title of Phra Nang Chao-Yang or Raja Nang Cayam. Another bid for total freedom came with the occupation of Ayuthia by the Burmese in 1767.

In the mid-17th century, however, Ratu Kuning (the Yellow Queen), believed to be the last of the four successive rulers of Pattani, died. Pattani went through decades of political chaos and conflict, suffering a gradual decline.

Around 1688-90, the rule of Pattani shifted to the Kelantan royal line, and this scenario was reversed around 1730 when the Pattani royal line came to rule Kelantan.

Raja Bakal, (1688-1690 or 1651-1670), after a brief invasion of Patani by his father in 1649, Raja Sakti I of Kelantan, he was given the throne in Patani.

The last sultan of Pattani, Sultan Abdul Kadir Kamaruddin's (1899-1902) son Tengku Seri Akar was married to the daughter of Sultan Muhamad IV of Kelantan. Through the 16th century to the 19th century we can trace many Pattani royal sons and daughters married into the ruling families of Kelantan, Perlis, Trengganu, Pahang, Johor, Melaka and Kedah.

One hundred years later, Ayutthaya under King Ekatat (Boromaraja V) (สมเด็จพระเจ้าเอกทัศน์)was faced with another Burmese invasion. He was the 33rd and last monarch of Ayutthaya Kingdom, ruling from 1758 to 1767. On April 7, 1767, Ayutthaya fell. The Burmese looted and burnt the city to the ground. This culminated in the fall and complete destruction of Ayutthaya. Siam was broken apart, Patani declared its independence.


The Malay states under the rule of Siam used the opportunity to declare independence from Siamese rule. The states were Ligor, Patalung and Singgora. Their independence was short-lived as Siam managed to cleanse Ayuthia from the Burmese forces and regain their power. The son of the king was sent to quell the rebellion in the south. The rulers of these three states fled and sought refuge in Patani. The Siamese authorities under the prince pursued them to Patani. He despatched a messenger to the king of Patani, Sultan Muhammad Patani. The messenger declared that the kingdom of Patani would face the wrath of Siam if it did not hand over the rebels. The Sultan had very little choice and agreed.

Thonburi Kingdom(1768-1782)

n 1768 Taksin (1734-1782)assumed the throne of Thonburi and was named King Krung-Thonburi (generally known as King Taksin the Great, สมเด็จพระเจ้ากรุงธนบุรี). He rapidly reunified the central Thai heartland. Probably as the kingdom had just emarged, Taksin needed huge resources. He thus began the Siamese expansion for the first time to conquer neighboring kingdoms. In 1769 was able to conquer western Cambodia. After that, his army marched south and reestablished Thai power over the Malay Peninsula including Syburi (today is Kedah)and Terengganu.

Chakri Dynasty(1782-until now)

General Taksin (later King Taksin) managed to defeat the Burmese and reunify the country, opening the way for the establishment of the Chakri dynasty by his successor, King Rama I(พระบาทสมเด็จพระปรมินทรมหาจักรีบรมนาถฯ พระพุทธยอดฟ้าจุฬาโลก, b 1736-d 1809). The Chakri Dynasty (also known as the House of Chakri) (Thai: ราชวงศ์จักรี: Rajawongse Chakri) is the current ruling royal house of the Kingdom of Thailand, the Head of the house is the King of Thailand. The Dynasty has ruled Thailand since the founding of the Ratthanakosin era and the city of Bangkok in 1782 following the end of King Taksin of Thonburi's reign, when the capital of Siam shifted to Bangkok. The Royal house was founded by King Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke an Ayutthayan military leader.

In 1784, under threat from Burma, the King of Siam again despatched his son to recapture the southern states of Ligor and Phuket from Burma. After the success of destroying the Burmese armada, the prince requested the states of Kedah and Patani to send Bunga Emas to Siam as a sign of subservience.

Sultan Muhammad Patani refused and rejected the request incurring the wrath of Siam who sent an army to attack and destroy Patani. The army assaulted an already weakened Patani kingdom in November 1786. Patani fell to the control of Siam on this historic date. The Siamese army committed atrocities with utmost rigour against the inhabitants. Sir Francis Light, who had just settled in Penang, wrote a letter to the Governor-General of India, Lord Cornwallis, detailing the massacre and atrocities that he had heard were occurring in Patani. Men, elderly ladies and children were all captured and thrown to the ground to be stepped upon by herds of elephants. 4000 more men were sent back to Ayuthia as slaves and were later used as labourers to build the new capital of Siam, called Bangkok.

Due to these atrocities many fled Patani to neighbouring Kedah. From 1786 onwards the rulers of Patani were appointed by the Siamese court in Ayuthia and later on Bangkok. This however did not stop the masses from rising up due to differential treatment meted out to the Malays. Beginning with Tengku Lamidin, who was appointed ruler by Siam, later rebelled and was subsequently captured and executed, the other rulers were also subservient in the beginning but revolted in the course of time.

Faced with frequent rebellions, the Siam authorities employed numerous tactics to pacify the south. The divide and rule tactic was used and the Patani provinces were divided into seven smaller provinces: Patani, Nhongchik, Raman, Ra-ngae, Saiburi, Yala and Yaring. This tactic however did not solve the problem; instead it created problems over revenue collections and taxation. It also did not quell the rebellions as the indigenous Patani rulers, influenced by the Kedah rebellion against Siam, also instigated another rebellion in 1832. They were defeated but another uprising was to occur 6 years later. The Siam authority then decided to choose the appointed officials from the Patani people themselves. This helped establish a stable and peaceful atmosphere for many years before the coming of King Chulalongkorn (1868-1910)

A resurgent and much stronger Siam, led by Prince Surasi (Vice-King Boworn Maha Surasinghanat), the younger brother of King Rama I, sought the submission of Pattani. During the reign of Pattani's last Queens in the 17th Century, the kingdom fell into disarray and went into gradual decline. A Siamese leader, Phraya Taksin, drove off the Burmese invaders out of Siam in a war of independence. His successor, Rama I, established the Chakri Dynasty, which still rules Thailand till today. The reunited and stronger Siamese army was to face another Burmese raid and demanded troops from a reluctant Pattani.

Prince Surasi, Rama I's son, invaded Pattani. Its Sultan Muhammad was killed in battle and his capital razed to the ground. According to local sources, 4,000 Malay men were enslaved and made to work on Bangkok's system of khlongs (canals). To further humiliate the Pattanese, the symbol of Pattani's military strength, the Seri Patani and Seri Negara cannons, were brought to Bangkok and it is today displayed in front of the Ministry of Defense.

On 1791 and 1808, there were several unsuccessful rebellions within Pattani against their Thai conquerors. Following which, Pattani was divided into 7 largely autonomous states ; Pattani, Nongchik, Saiburi (Teluban), Yala (Jala), Yaring (Jambu), Ra-ngae (Legeh) and Reman. All these was ruled by the King of Ligor. For several months, there was a period of independence when along with Kedah Malays, Pattanese drove the Thais out. This however was short-lived.

King Chulalongkorn (พระบาทสมเด็จพระปรมินทรมหาจุฬาลงกรณ์ฯ พระจุลจอมเกล้าเจ้าอยู่หัว, b 1853-d 1910) introduced a centralisation programme (thesaphiban) which was to increase the strain of direct control from the capital Bangkok. In 1901 Siam regrouped the seven provinces of Patani under one single administrative unit called “Area of Seven Provinces” (boriween chet huamuang) and placed it under the control of an area commissioner who worked directly under the Interior Ministry. The treasuries of the Malay kingdom was handled directly by the Revenue Department as in other Siamese provinces.

1902-1909 Under Siam

In 1902, Pattani was formally annexed by Siam.

By 1906 the area of the seven Malay provinces was administratively reorganised into a “circle” (monthon) called Monthon Patani. The Monthon Patani incorporated the seven provinces into four larger provinces: Patani, Bangnara, Saiburi and Yala.

A district of Kedah was also incorporated into Siamese territory and named Satun Province. Kedah was however ceded to England together with Perlis, Kelantan and Terengganu in accordance with the Anglo-Siamese Treaty signed in March 1909

1909 - Anglo-siamese treaty of 1909

Bangkok Treaty of 1909 was signed between Great Britain and Siam. With that agreement, the British recognized Siam sovereignty over Pattani. Later, all seven provinces were reunited into a monthon and incorporated into the kingdom. Later on the central government in Bangkok renamed certain localities with Thai-sounding names, as well as merging together some of the provinces. When the monthon was dissolved in 1933 three provinces remained - Pattani, Yala and Narathiwat.

Both Yala (Jala) and Narathiwat (Menara) were originally part of Pattani, but were made provinces of their own. Satun (Sentul) and Songkhla (Singgora) were nearby semi-independent states.

During WW2

During World War II, Thailand was an unofficial ally1 with Japan and allowed its southern territory to invade British dependencies and colonies on the Malay peninsula. Tengku Mahmud Mahyuddin, a prominent Pattani leader who was the son of the last Raja of Pattani, allied himself with the British in promises that after the war should they win, Pattani would be granted independence.

The major source of support came from the Malay people frustrated with the Rathaniyom policy during the reign of Phibul Songkhram where Malays were subjected to assimilation and forced to abandon large amounts of their indigenous culture.

The Malay leader collaborated with the British in launching guerrilla attacks against the Japanese. In 1945, a petition of Malay leaders lead by Tengku Abdul Jalal demanded from the British independence of the 4 southern provinces from Thailand, which itself had collaborated with the Japanese and declared war on the Allies in 1941. After the war, there was a period where the Greater Malay Pattani State (Negara Melayu Patani Raya) flag rose in Pattani. However, the British soon broke its war promises by reestablishing Thai presence in Pattani and the hopes of an independent Pattani was shattered.

This immediately gave rise to many insurgency groups seeking independence. British reasoning behind this move however is to keep Thailand stable, because they are seen as a strategic counterweight to the communist insurgency in China, Indochina and Malaya.

After the war finished, however, it was found that the Thai government in charge at that time which declared an ally with Japan was no longer a valid government. Therefore, any agreement it made was invalid. From Free Thai Movement contributions to the Allies intelligence during war time, Thailand was recognized as a non-ally of Japan.

During the World War II, along with the Greater Patani Malay Movement lead by Tengku Mahmud Mahyuddin, another resistance force under the leadership of Islamic scholar Haji Sulong Tokmina fought alongside against the Japanese. Their stated goal is to create an Islamic republic in Patani, which frequently put it at odds with Tengku Mahmud who wants to reestablish the Pattanese Sultanate (being a prince himself).

Today, the goals and ideas of Haji Sulong Tokmina is still carried on by minor resistance groups interested in creating an Islamic republic. After the war though, hopes of any independent republic in Pattani was quickly dashed by the British and the Thais.

Chronology of Patani Rulers

bf.1400 Patani kingdom founded
1786 Thai occupation
1816 split into 7 divisions (Patani, Rahman, Jalar, Sai, Legeh,
Jering, Nongcik)
1902 incorporated into Siam, now Thailand.

Inland Dynasty

* Sultan Ismail Shah (d. 1530?), founder of the kingdom according to one account, and the first ruler to convert to Islam. In actuality, other rulers must have preceded him. It is also likely that during his reign the Portuguese first visited the port to trade, arriving in 1516. He was called King Phaya Tu Nakpa before his conversion.
* Sultan Mudhaffar Shah (c. 1530-1564), son of Sultan Ismail Shah, who died during an attack on Ayudhya (Siam).
* Sultan Manzur Shah (1564-1572), brother of Sultan Mudhaffar Shah.
* Sultan Patik Siam (1572-1573), son of Sultan Mudhaffar Shah, who was murdered by his half-brother, Raja Bambang.
* Sultan Bahdur (1573-1584), son of Sultan Manzur Shah, who was considered a tyrant in most accounts.
* Raja Ijau (1584-1616), sister of Sultan Bahdur, during whose reign Patani attained his greatest economic success as a middle-sized port frequented by Chinese, Dutch, English, Japanese, Malays, Portuguese, Siamese, and other merchants.
* Raja Biru (1616-1624), sister of Raja Ijau.
* Raja Ungu (1624-1635), sister of Raja Biru, who was particularly opposed to Siamese interference in local affairs.
* Raja Kuning (1635-1649/88), daughter of Raja Ungu and last queen of the Inland Dynasty. Controversy surrounds the exact date of the end of her reign.

Kelantan Dynasty

* Raja Bakal, (1688-1690 or 1651-1670), after a brief invasion of Patani by his father in 1649, Raja Sakti I of Kelantan, he was given the throne in Patani.
* Raja Emas Kelantan (1690-1704 or 1670-1698), thought by Teeuw & Wyatt to be a king, but claimed by al-Fatani to be a queen, the widow of Raja Bakal and mother of the succeeding queen.
* Raja Emas Chayam (1704-1707 or 1698-1702 and 1716-1718), daughter of the two preceding rulers, according to al-Fatani.
* Raja Dewi (1707-1716; Fatani gives no dates).
* Raja Bendang Badan (1716-1720 or ?-1715), he was afterward raja of Kelantan, 1715-1733.
* Raja Laksamana Dajang (1720-1721; Fatani gives no dates).
* Raja Alung Yunus (1728-1729 or 1718-1729),
* Raja Yunus (1729-1749)
* Raja Long Nuh (1749-1771).

1690 - 1707 Raja Mas Kelatan
1707 - 1710 Raja Mas Jayam (1st time)
1710 - 1719 Raja Dewi (f)
1719 - 1723 Raja Bendang Badan
1723 - 1724 Raja Laksamana Dajang
1724 - 1726 Raja Mas Jayam (2nd time)
1726 - 12 Aug 1729 Along Yunus (b. ... - d. 1729)
1729 - 1749 Raja Yunus
1749- 1771 Raja Long Nuh
1729 - 1776 ...
1776 - 1786 Sultan Muhammad
1786 - 1791 Tengku Lamidin
1791 - 1808 Datok Pengkalan
1808 - 1815 Nai Khwan Sai
1815 - 1816 Nai Pai

Kelantan & Patani

Patani and Kelantan have close relationship. Raja Bakal, (1688-1690 or 1651-1670), after a brief invasion of Patani by his father in 1649, Raja Sakti I of Kelantan, he was given the throne in Patani.

Sultan Long Bahar, from Patani, ruled Kelantan from 1721 to 1734. He was the son-in-law of Sultan Omar, husband of Rajah Pah. This put an end to the Raja Jembal line of ancestry, which start from Raja Loyor to Sultan Omar. Raja Loyor was the raja of Jembal, who succeed Che Wan Kembang in 1649. Che Wan Kembang was the descendant of the original Raja Kumar.

Around 1760, Long Yunus, an aristocratic warlord of Patani origin succeeded in unifying the territory of present-day Kelantan.

Modern Thailand
Pattani Province(北大年府), Thailand

Pattani (Thai ปัตตานี) today is one of the southern provinces (changwat) of Thailand. Neighboring provinces are (from south-east clockwise) Narathiwat(陶公府), Yala(惹拉府) and Songkhla(宋卡府).

Pattani is one of the four provinces of Thailand(The others are Yala, Narathiwat,Satun) where the majority of the population are Malay Muslim, making up 88% of the population. They speak the Patani Malay language. The Pattani Malays are very similar in ethnicity and culture to the Malays of Kelantan, Malaysia.

Pattani is subdivided into 12 districts (amphoe), which are further subdivided into 115 communes (tambon) and 629 villages (muban).

The districts of Chana (Malay: Chenok), Thepa (Malay:Tiba) and Saba Yoi (Malay:Sebayu) were detached from Pattani and transferred to Songkhla in recent times by the Thai government.

1. Mueang Pattani (Malay: Patani)
2. Khok Pho
3. Nong Chik
4. Panare
5. Mayo
6. Thung Yang Daeng
7. Sai Buri (Malay: Teluban or Selindung Bayu)
8. Mai Kaen
9. Yaring (Malay: Jaring)
10. Yarang
11. Mae Lan
12. Kapho

separatist movement

A separatist movement now exists, which after being dormant for many years erupted again in 2004. The movement is extremely violent, committing acts such as murdering members of the Buddhist minority, burning public schools, mining roads and ambushing military and police units. Muslims who cooperate with Thai authorities including Thai schooling are also considered fair game for attack. The separatist movement are mainly Malay Muslims in Pattani, Narathiwat and Yala provinces, except Satun province(which are Kedah Malay).

( Note: Satun does not have a history of political confrontation with the central power in Bangkok or of tension with the Buddhist population which makes up the majority of Thailand as a country. Malay Muslims in Satun are substantially assimilated and rarely sympathise with separatism from Thailand. Some of them are mixed Malay-Siamese, called Samsam).

Tuesday, February 2, 2010

Sarawak only Sultan?

ABOUT 200 years before the Brookes became the White Rajah of Sarawak, Sarawak was under the control of the Brunei Sultanate. Not much has been known how Sarawak was governed by the Brunei Sultanate but presumably there was an equivalent of a governor then.

Not many know that around 1598, Sarawak had its first and only Sultan. How did this come about?

When Sultan Muhammad Hassan, Brunei's ninth Sultan who reigned from 1582 to 1598 died, the throne was ascended by his eldest son, Sultan Abdul Jalilul Akbar.

Sultan Abdul Jalilul Akbar had a younger sibling named Pengiran Muda Tengah Ibrahim Ali Omar Shah or was better known as Raja Tengah.

According to oral tradition, Pengiran Muda Tengah wanted to become the Sultan of Brunei as well. He argued that his elder brother was born when his father was not yet the Crown Prince whereas he was born when Sultan Muhammad Hassan was anointed as the Crown Prince. This, argued Pengiran Muda Tengah, made him more suited to be the Sultan than his elder brother.

Sarawak 1st sultan 1582-1598
Sultan Abdul Jalilul Akbar was a wise man. He understood his younger sibling's intention and he tried to accommodate his brother's wishes. One way out for Sultan Abdul Jalilul Akbar was to appoint Pengiran Muda Tengah as a Sultan somewhere else. And so Pengiran Muda Tengah was appointed as the Sultan of Sarawak, since Sarawak was then owned and governed by Brunei.

According to the Salsilah Raja-Raja Brunei, Pengiran Muda Tengah accepted the appointment and he made preparation to go to Sarawak. When he went to Sarawak, more than 1,000 warriors of Sakai, Kedayan and Pulau Bunut origins accompanied him. A few nobilities went along with him to help him administer the new country. Many of these are the forefathers of some of today's Malay community in Sarawak.

In Sarawak, the new Sultan and his men built a palace and a fort to surround the palace. Sultan Tengah began to appoint his senior officials. Among them was Datu Petinggi Seri Setia, Datu Shahbandar Indera Wangsa, Datu Amar Setia Diraja and Datu Temenggong Laila Wangsa. After everything was done, Sultan Tengah coronated himself as Sultan Ibrahim Ali Omar Shah, the first Sultan of Sarawak. According to Sambas History, Sultan Tengah was also known as Sultan Abdul Jalil.

Visit Pahang(Johor Empire)
Around 1599, Sultan Tengah visited Pahang which was then part of the Johor Empire to visit Raja Bonda who was Sultan Tengah's aunty who had married Sultan Abdul Ghafur Muhyiddin Shah ibnu Sultan Abdul Kadir Alauddin Shah.

During his stay, Sultan Tengah was asked to a dance but during that dance, the handkerchief of his dance partner nearly hit Sultan Tengah's face. He became so angry that he slapped his partner. That caused Sultan Johor to be so upset that Sultan Tengah was advised to leave Johor as soon as possible.

According to the Sambas History version, Sultan Tengah was forced to leave Johor because he refused Raja Bonda's offer for him to marry Sultan Johor's princess known as Encik Zohra.

Arrive at Sukadana

On his return to Sarawak, Sultan Tengah's ship ran into a hurricane which caused the ship to lose its main sail. The ship ran aground in Sukadana in today's Kalimantan, Indonesia. Then Sukadana was governed by Penambahan Giri Mustika, Sultan Muhammad Saifuddin who had just converted to Islam helped by Sheikh Shamsuddin from Makkah. Sultan Tengah also studied under Sheikh Shamsuddin during his stay there.

In Sukadana, Sultan Tengah married one of the princesses, Puteri Surya Kesuma, the younger sister to Sultan Muhammad Saifuddin. Sultan Tengah stayed on in Sukadana and asked to be allowed to help spread Islam around the area. It was decided that he should do it around the Sambas River. And so around 1600, Sultan Tengah left Sukadana via the Sambas River with about 40 boats all equipped with weapons.


At the Sambas River, they landed at Kuala Bangun and by then Puteri Surya Kesuma gave birth to a prince named Radin Sulaiman. Two other princes were also born later. The second prince was known as Pengiran Badaruddin who later became Pengiran Bendahara Seri Maharaja and a third prince, Pengiran Abdul Wahab who later became Pengiran Temenggong Jaya Kesuma.

Sultan Tengah eventually arrived at Kota Lama. There, he was welcomed by Ratu Kota Lama, Ratu Sepudak who greeted him with all the royal protocol. Sultan Tengah found that Ratu Sepudak allowed him to spread Islam around the area even though he was not a Muslim. Later on during his stay, Sultan Tengah's eldest son, Radin Sulaiman was married to the daughter of Ratu Sepudak, Puteri Mas Ayu Bongsu. The couple had a son named Radin Bima who later became Sultan Muhammad Tajuddin.

When Ratu Sepudak died, he was replaced by Pengiran Prabu Kenchana who appointed Radin Sulaiman as one of his viziers. It was also said that Ratu Sepudak wanted the throne to be given to Sultan Tengah as he had the experience of running a country but that was opposed by the royal family.

Around 1630, Sultan Tengah went to Matan. In Matan, he married one of the Matan Princesses who later gave birth to Pengiran Mangku Negara. Pengiran Mangku Negara eventually became the Sultan of Matan.

Death: Return to Sarawak
After a few years' stay in Matan, Sultan Tengah went back to Sarawak. On his return to Sarawak, he stopped at a place called Batu Buaya in Santubong. It was there he was killed by one of his followers.

When news of his death reached Sarawak, Datu Petinggi, Datu Shahbandar, Datu Amar and Datu Temenggong came to Santubong to complete the funeral rites according to royal Brunei tradition. It was said that he died in 1641 around 10 years after Radin Sulaiman became Sultan Muhammad Saifuddin I in Sambas. Sultan Muhammad Saifuddin I was replaced by Sultan Muhammad Tajuddin I, then followed by a long lineage of the Sambas Sultanate until the modern times.

Meanwhile, Sultan Tengah was buried in Santubong in today's Kampong Batu Buaya. The grave stone marking the grave was fit for a Sultan. With Sultan Tengah's death, came the end of the Sarawak Sultanate made up of the one and only Sultan. But the titles given to the nobilities of Sarawak carried on until today.

During his visit to Sarawak, His Majesty Sultan Haji Hassanal Bolkiah Mu'izzaddin Waddaulah, the Sultan and Yang Di-Pertuan of Brunei Darussalam visited the mausoleum of Sultan Tengah in Santubong in August earlier this year.

(source: The Brunei Times, http://www.bt.com.bn/en/golden_legacy/2008/12/28/sultan_tengah_sarawaks_first_sultan)

Monday, February 1, 2010

Bugis in Early Malaysia

Bugis Diaspora

The Bugis (sometimes called the Ugi) live in the province of South Sulawesi. The Bugis region is called Tellumponcoe, and it consists of the regencies of Bone, Wajo, and Soppeng. There are also Bugis people settled throughout the regencies of Luwu, Sidenneng, Polmas, Pinrang, Pare-pare, Barru, Pangkajene, Maros, Bulukumba, and Sinjai. The Bugis are a dynamic and highly mobile people, considered by many to be the dominant people group in South Sulawesi. Many Bugis have left their home area to seek success and wealth. In particular, they have migrated to Sumbawa, Jawa, Papua, and even Malaysia. Their Ugi language is divided into several dialects, namely Luwu, Wajo, Bira Selayar, Palaka, Sindenneng and Sawito.

The Bugis are the most numerous of the three major linguistic and ethnic groups of South Sulawesi, the southwestern province of Sulawesi, Indonesia's third largest island.

The conclusion in 1669 of a protracted civil war led to a diaspora of Bugis and their entry into the politics of peninsular Malaysia and Sumatra.

The history of Bugis in Malaysia.

The Bugis played an important role in defeating Jambi and had a huge influence in Sultanate of Johor. Apart from the Malays, another influential faction in Johor at that time was the Minangkabau. Both the Bugis and the Minangkabau realized how the death of Sultan Mahmud II had provided them with the chance to exert power in Johor. Under the leadership of Daeng Parani, the descendants of two families settled on the Linggi and Selangor rivers and became the power behind the Johor throne, with the creation of the office of the Yang Dipertuan Muda (Yam Tuan Muda), or Bugis underking.

THE Bugis (sometimes called the Ugi) are a dynamic and highly mobile people who originated from the province of South Sulawesi (previously known as the Celebes). Skilled sailor-navigators, fighters and traders, many left their homes to seek success and wealth in the late 17th century. Some of them settled in Selangor on the west coast of peninsular Malaysia where they traded in tin. They were also active in Perak and Kedah.

The murder of its sultan in 1699, marking the extinction of the royal line of Malacca, and the periodic invasions of the Bugis from Sulawesi (Celebes), began the disintegration of the Riau Johore kingdom. The Bugis established themselves in Selangor, and in 1722 became de facto rulers of the Johore kingdom.

The Bugis captured Johor and Riau in 1721. In 1819, Johor was controlled by the Temenggong. The Riau-Linggi Sultanate, in the Riau Archipelago, was controlled by the Bugis.

Over time, the Bugis migrants adopted Malay-Muslim customs and merged with Malay society. Intermarriage secured the Bugis bloodline. As a result, Johor’s racial mix of Malays are mostly of Javanese and Bugis descent.

The descendants of settler Daing Hadadek are one such family in Johor proud of their Bugis heritage.

In the peninsula, the descendants of three prominent Bugis brothers — Daeng Perani, Daeng Merewah and Daeng Celak — settled down in Johor as well as Linggi (Port Dickson) and Selangor. One of the famous Bugis in Malaysia was Tun Abdul Razak(2nd Prime Minister of Malaysia) is a Bugis from Pahang.. His eldest son, Najib Abdul Razak is the current Prime Minister(was the 6th Prime Minister.

The Royal title of Bugis

Daheng or Daeng is a bugis title reserved for nobility not of royal descent.

Yang Dipertuan Muda or Yam Tuan Besar(Muda), a royal title which is hereditary for Bugis, and Sultan, Bendahara, Temenggong, were hereditary for Riau Malay. This was a political arrangement when the Bugis helped Raja Sulaiman of the Bendahara house to take the throne from Malacca sultanate bloodline(Raja Kechil). It had seen been a political tradition for Johor Empire. Under the leadership of Daeng Parani, the descendants of two families settled on the Linggi and Selangor rivers and became the power behind the Johor throne, with the creation of the office of the Yang Dipertuan Muda (Yam Tuan Muda), or Bugis underking. Some translator called the title Crown Prince(2nd ranking sultan)

List of Yam Tuan Muda
1.Daeng MEREWAH bin Daeng Rilaga 1721/1728
2.Upu Daeng CELLAK bin Daeng Rilaga 1728/1745
3.Daeng KAMBODJA bin Daeng Parani 1745/1777,(b1697-d1777)
4.Raja HAJI Fasibillah bin Daeng Cellak 1777/1784
5.Raja ALI I bin Daeng Kambodja 1784/1805
6.Raja JA'AFAR bin al-Marhum Raja Haji 1805/1831,(b 1770- d 1831)
7. HH Raja ABDUL RAHMAN bin al-Marhum Raja Ja'afar 1831/1844
8. HH Raja ALI II bin al-Marhum Raja Ja'afar 1844/1857,(b 1809- d 1857)
9.HH Raja Haji ABDULLAH bin al-Marhum Raja Ja'afar [Tengku Dalam Abdullah] 1857/1858, Chief of Klang 1854/1857, Orang Besar Klang [cr.1853],
10.HH Raja MUHAMMED YUSUF bin al-Marhum Raja Ali 1858/1899

1. Bugis and Johore Empire(Johor-Riau-Lingga Kingdom)

In 1718 the Raja Kecik of Siak, who claimed to be the unborn son of the late Sultan Mahmud Shah which died in 1699, attacked and conquered Johore kingdom. After one year later, Raja Kecik moved to Riau (Bintan) and ruled Johore kingdom from Riau. About three years later, Raja Sulaiman, the son of Sultan Abdul Jalil, managed to topple Raja Kecik from the throne with the help of five Bugis Princes. He than succeed the Johore throne as the Yang Dipertuan Besar with the title of Sultan Sulaiman Badrul Alam Shah, and the kingdom now know Johore – Riau kingdom. Sultan Sulaiman than proclaim one of the sibling of the five Bugis Princes, Opu Daeng Merewah or known as Kelana Jaya Putera to be the Yang Dipertuan Muda with the title of Sultan Alauddin Shah, as his representative to rule the Johore – Riau kingdom. Three years later Sultan Sulaiman send delegation to Trengganu to proclaim his uncle, Tun Zainal Abidin as Sultan of Trengganu with title Sultan Zainal Abidin.

The news and popularity of the five Bugis Princes that successfully helping Sultan Sulaiman to regain the Johore throne has spread around the region. Soon after that two of the Bugis prince namely, Opu Daing Menambon and Opu Daeng Kemasi have left Riau to Mempawah and Sambas in Kalimantan to be the ruler in that respective countries. In 1723 the Sultan of Kedah have wrote to seek help from Opu Daeng Parani, the eldest of the Bugis Princes to regain the throne of Kedah kingdom that have taken from him by his younger brother. With the of help of Opu Daeng Parani together with his brothers, the Yang Dipertuan Muda Daeng Merewah and Opu Daeng Celak, the Sultan of Kedah managed to regain back his throne.

The capability of Johore – Riau military strength have managed the kingdom to defend their territory from any attack of foreign county. After few years, the Johore – Riau kingdom which was base at Riau became prosperous and known as one of the popular business port in the region. In the tradition of the Johore – Riau kingdom, the Yang Dipertuan Muda held greater responsibilities from military and foreign affairs to domestic, economy, social and religious affair. After the death of the Yang Dipertuan Muda Daeng Merewah, Sultan Sulaiman proclaim the Yang Dipertuan Muda younger brother, Opu Daeng Celak to became the next Yang Dipertuan Muda and also held the title of Sultan Alauddin Shah. Yang Dipertuan Muda Daeng Celak(Daeng ruled Johore – Riau kingdom for seventeen years, his elder son, Raja Lumu became the first Sultan of Selangor in 1766 with the title of Sultan Salehuddin Shah, while his other son Raja Haji later became the following Yang Dipertuan Muda in the Johore – Riau kingdom in 1777.

2. Bugis in Modern Johor Sultanate

Daeng Rongge is the descendant of the 1st bugis prince to settle in Riau, Daeng Perani. He married a Malay princes. He was properly known as Tun Ibrahim , born in the island of Bulan , in the Riau archipelago in 1811. He was taken to Singapore at the age of 8 where he become familiarize with European custom. In 1825, his father Temenggong Abd al Rahman died and his eldest brother Abdullah became chief. Abdullah suffered periodic insanity and was never installed as Temenggong, Ibrahim acted as chief from 1833-1834. In 1841, Ibrahim was formally installed as Temenggong. His son Abu Bakar succeeded him as Temenggong when he died in 1862. Temenggong Abu Bakar later become 1st sultan of modern Johor sultanate, the sultanate continued until today.

Temenggong Tun Daeng Ibrahim or Daeng Rongge, a descendant of Sultan Abdul Jalil Riayat Shah IV by his non-royal son Tun Abbas.

3. Bugis in Selangor

Selangor was a landed territory GIVEN to the family of Daeng Chelak in late 1700. Given by the people residing in this area with the consent of the Johore, Perak and Kedah sultanate.

The Sultans of Selangor are descended from a Bugis dynasty that claim descent from the rulers of Luwu in the southern part of Celebes (today known as Sulawesi). Nobles from this bloodline were involved in the dispute over the Johor-Riau Sultanate in the early 18th century, eventually placing their full support in the cause of Sultan Abdul Jalil of the Bendahara dynasty against the claimant to the Malaccan lineage, Raja Kechil. For this reason, the Bendahara rulers of Johor-Riau established close relations with the Bugis nobles, providing them with titles and control over many areas within the empire, including Selangor. Daeng Chelak's prince, Raja Lumu arrived in Selangor and founded a new government at Kuala Selangor in 1766. He was installed by the Sultan of Perak as Sultan Salehuddin Shah and became the first Sultan of Selangor.

The 5 Daeng warriors who had contributed military power behind the throne of Johor Sultanate and powerful influence on the state of Kedah and Perak during the period 1722-1760

1. Daeng Kemasi - ruler of Sambas
2. Daeng Menambun -went to Kalimantan and become sultan of Mempawah and Matan sultanate.
3. Daeng Chelak(?-1745) - whose son formed the sovereign state of Selangor
4. Daeng Merewar(?-1728) - first Yam Tuan Muda (crown prince);
5. Daeng Perani(1697-1726)- personally involved in the politics of the Johor Sultanate in the early 18th century. Some said his name should be Daeng Paroni.

Daeng KEMASI ibni Daeng Rilaga

Sultan Umar Akamuddin 1 did write a letter requested Daeng Opu Manambunm,Opu Daeng Perani,Opu Daeng Macelak,Opu Daeng Marewa and Opu Daeng Kemasi to visit the Sambas sultanate. But only Opu daeng Daeng Manambun and Opu Daeng Kemasi come to Sambas. When they arrive at Sambas,
Sultan Umar Akamuddin 1 bin Muhammad Tajuddin (1708-1732) announced his desire to match his sister Raden Tengah with Opu Daeng Kemasi. Opu daeng Kemasi was given a title as Pangeran Mangkubumi. Some said Daeng Kemasi was the ruler of Sambas, but his name was not in the list,may be he had changed his name....

Note: Radin Maliau was the third Sultan, Sultan Omar Aqamaddin I. He continued with his predecessors’ work to spread Islam. He was known as Sultan Adil (the Just Sultan). He died in 1732.

Daeng Menambun ibni Daeng Rilaga(1737-1761)

Daeng Menambun become Sultan Mempawah dan Matan.Mempawah is a coastal state just north of Kapuas outlet. Historical state located in Kalimantan Barat (Western Borneo) north of Pontianak. Said to have been established in 1340. Under tutelage of the Dutch East Indies; in 1945/1949 absorbed by the Republic of Indonesia. The territory of the former Sultanate of Mempawah presently is divided among Kabupaten Pontianak (the west) and Kabupaten Landak (the east).
Daeng Menambun married with Putri Kesumba, the daughter of Sultan Muhammad Zainuddin,of Mempawah sultanate. Another Bugis, Daeng Pamase married into rayal house of Sambas.


1837 Matan state founded.

Rulers (title Panembahan)
1837 - 1845 Anom Kusuma Negara
1845 - 1908 Muhammad Cabaran
1908 - 19.. Gusti Mas Saunan


Ruler (title Panembahan)
1795 - 1822 Anom Kusuma Negara
(from 1808, Nata Kusuma)
1822 Muhammad Zainul Abidin Nata Kusuma
Rulers (title Panembahan)
1822 - 1826 Muhammad Zainul Abidin Nata Kusuma
1826 - 1828 Vacant
1828 - 1853 Umar Kamaruddin Nata Kerama
1853 - 1854 Mukmin Jaya Kusuma bin Umar
Kamaruddin Nata Kerama
1854 - 1860 Mahmud Akamaddin bin Umar
Kamaruddin Nata Kerama
1860 - 1863 Usman Shafiuddin Nata Jaya Kusuma
bin Mukmin Jaya Kusuma
1863 - 1892 Ibrahim Muhammad Shafiuddin bin
Mahmud Akamaddin
1892 - 1904? Muhammad Taufik Akamaddin
19.. - 12 Aug 2002 Jimmy Mochamad Ibrahim bin Taufik
Akamaddin (b. 1932 - d. 2005)
2002 - Mardan Adijaya Kesuma Ibrahim

Opu Daeng Manambon Grave(Makam Opu Daeng Menambun)

The founder of Mempawah Empire Grave is located to hill, Suap village, Mempawah Hilir district, Kabupaten Pontianak - Kalimantan Barat. There is also Habib Husein Grave (the first Islam spreader in Mempawah), which located in Sejegi village, Mempawah Hilir district.

Daeng Parani/Daeng Paroni

Daeng Parani was the eldest among five sons of Daing Rilaka and Upu Tenribong; this four other brothers being Daeng Menambun, Daeng Marewah, Daeng Chelak and Daeng Kemasi. As a youth, Daing Parani was said to have hooked up with a concubine of the Raja of Bone, during which he killed a Macassar prince and hence forcing his entire family to resettle in Riau.

Daeng Parani agreed to assist a Minangkabau prince, Raja Kechil, in overthrowing Sultan Abdul Jalil IV, the Bendahara (viceroy) who had taken power after the death of Sultan Mahmud Shah II without an official heir. Kechil claimed to be Mahmud's posthumous son. In 1717, however, Kechil attacked Riau without Daeng Parani, and claimed the throne. Abdul Jalil IV's son, Sulaiman Badrul Alam Shah, then sought the help of Daeng Parani and his Bugis warriors. They joined with Sulaiman and defeated Kechil in 1722. Sulaiman installed Daeng Parani's brother, Daeng Merewah, as Yam Tuan Muda (crown prince); under this arrangement, the Bugis were the actual power behind the throne of Johor.

Daeng Parani invaded Kedah with the combined force from Riau and Selangor, he was involved with the civil war of Kedah, supporting the ruler. The rival seek the help of Raja Kechil from Siak, who he had fight in Johor. He was killed about 1726 in Kedah, but the Bugis won the war.
Perani also married into the Kedah royal house. He died in Pinang Tunggal in 1724 while participating in a civil war between 2 claimants to the throne of Kedah, Johor’s vassal.
Two years ago, Kedahans of Kampung (Village) Ekor Lubuk in Sidam Kiri, Alor Star, found his grave in their midst.

His descendants through Tun Abdul Jamal (a maternal grandson of Daeng Parani), son of Bendahara Tun Abbas, gradually became the rulers of Johor during the 19th century. Daing Parani married Tengku Tengah, a daughter of Sultan Abdul Jalil IV. Another parternal descendant was Daeng Kamboja.

Following Raja Lumu, two other Bugis Chiefs settled in the Selangor area: Raja Tua in Klang and Daeng Kemboja in Linggi, south of Lukut. Daeng Kemboja,the son of Daeng Parani later succeed his uncle Daeng Chelak as 3rd Yam Tuan Muda of Riau. Daeng Kemboja, with his base at Linggi, invaded Malacca in 1756, but 1757 help arrived from Batavia , Bugis was forced to give up the siege. Dutch built a fort on the Linggi River and named it Philippe(today's Kota Linggi) after the daughter of Dutch Governor of Batavia, Jacob Mussel.

Daeng KAMBODJA bin Daeng Parani 1745/1777, born 1697, married 1stly, Raja Fatimah binti Daeng Merewah , married 2ndly, Daeng Uteh, married 3rdly, "Perempuan dari Riau", and had issue. He died 30th June 1777.

Daeng Chelak(?-1745)

Daeng Chelak(?-1745) was the Yang Dipertuan Muda Riau(II), his full name was Daeng CHELAK ibni Daeng Rilaga.

He was the father of Raja Lumu. Raja Lumu (Sultan Sallehuddin Shah ibni Almarhum Daeng Chelak; 1705-1778) was the first Sultan of Selangor. The bloodline of Daeng Chelak however was terminated after the 3rd Sultan. Raja Lumu originally met with opposition from the Sultans of Perak and Johor, as well as from the Dutch, but eventually managed to consolidate his position as sovereign. By 1770, his legitimacy was strengthened by marriage to the niece of the Sultan of Perak.

His another son was Raja HAJI bin al-Marhum Daeng Cellak, with the title Tok Klana, famous warrior prince,who was fear by Dutch. He was the 4th Yam Tuan Muda after Daeng Kemboja died in 1777 while fighting the Dutch in the battle. Raja Haji was in Kalimantan, he came back and become the next Yam Tuan Muda. Raja Haji died in 1784 while fighting Dutch in Malacca(Note: some record show Raja HAJI Fasibillah bin Daeng Cellak was the 4th Yam Tuan Muda, are they the same one? or which is the correct one?)

He was the grandfather to Bugi scholar, Raja Ali Haji bin Raja Haji Ahmad (1808–1872) was a 19th-century Buginese–Malay historian, poet and scholar, who author the famous historical book, Tuhfat al-Nafis (The Precious Gift). He was the son of Raja Ahmad, who was titled Engku Haji Tua after accomplishing the pilgrimage to Mecca. He was the grandson of Raja Ali Haji Fisabilillah (the brother of Raja Lumu, the first Sultan of Selangor).

Raja Haji Ali bin Raja Ahmad, born 1809, married (a), Raja Safiah binti al-Marhum Raja Ja'afar, married (b), Daeng Chahaya binti Daeng Manaroh, married (c), Che' Sulong, married (d), Tengku Nai binti Tun Sabtir, and had issue. He died 1872.

Following Raja Lumu, two other Bugis Chiefs settled in the Selangor area: Raja Tua in Klang and Daeng Kemboja in Linggi, south of Lukut. Daeng Kemboja,the son of Daeng Parani later succeed his uncle Daeng Chelak as 3rd Yam Tuan Muda of Riau.

# Upu Daeng CELLAK bin Daeng Rilaga 1728/1745, married (amongst others) (a), 1712, Tengku Mandak binti al-Marhum Sultan Abdul Djalil Shah Riayat Shah of Johore, married (b), Daeng Maasik binti Arong Palai, and had issue. He died 1745.

* Raja HAJI bin al-Marhum Daeng Cellak (by Daeng Maasik) (qv)
* HH Sultan SALEHUDDIN SHAH ibni al-Marhum Daeng Cellak [Raja Lumu] (by Daeng Maasik), 1st Sultan of Selangor.
* Tengku Putih binti al-Marhum Daeng Cellak (by Tengku Mandak), married HH Sultan ABDUL DJALIL V MUAZZAM SHAH ibni al-Marhum Sultan Sulaiman Badrul Alam Shah of Johore, and had issue.
* Tengku Hitam binti al-Marhum Daeng Cellak (by Tengku Mandak), married Syed Husain bin Syed Sheikh Yahya, and had issue.
* Raja Bulang binti al-Marhum Daeng Cellak, married 1739, Sultan MANSUR SHAH I of Terengganu, and had issue.
* Raja Halimah binti al-Marhum Daeng Cellak [Tengku Chik] (by Daeng Maasik), married the Raja of Jambi.
* Raja Hafsah Aminah binti al-Marhum Daeng Cellak, married Daeng Lakani [Arung Lenga], a Bugis Prince, and had issue.
o Raja Sulaiman bin Daeng Lakani [Engku Dalam], married Raja Buntit binti al-Marhum Raja Haji

Daeng Merewah

Daeng Merewah, the first Yam Tuan Muda invaded Perak in 1728, but was not successful. He was killed /died in 1728. His successor Daeng Chelak , the 2nd Yam Tuan Muda of Riau, attacked again in 1743, and captured Perak.

Daeng MEREWAH bin Daeng Rilaga(1721/1728), married Encik Chik Ayu binti Daeng Abdul Jamal of Riau-Johore, and had issue. He died 7th August 1728.

* Raja Fatimah binti Daeng Merewah, married Daeng KAMBODJA bin al-Marhum Daeng Parani (see below)
* Upu Lamampak Kelana Cik Unok binti Daeng Merewah, married Raja Lumu bin Daeng Cellak (later HH Sultan SALEHUDDIN SHAH ibni al-Marhum Daeng Cellak, 1st Sultan of Selangor).
* Raja Sa'ad bin Daeng Merewah, married and had issue.
o Raja Ismail bin Raja Sa'ad, married Raja Aishah binti Daeng Kambodja (see below).
o Raja Tipah binti Raja Sa'ad
(ref: http://uqconnect.net/~zzhsoszy/states/indonesia/riau.html)
It was reported in the forum, families can be found in Singapore and Malacca.

List of Sultans of Selangor

1. Sultan Salahuddin Shah (Raja Lumu Ibni Daeng Chelak; 1745-1778)
2. Sultan Ibrahim Shah (Raja Ibrahim; 1778-1826)
3. Sultan Muhammad Shah (Raja Muhammad; 1826-1857)
4. Sultan Sir Abdul Samad (Raja Abdul Samad; 1857-1896)
5. Sultan Sir Alaeddin Sulaiman Shah (Tengku Sulaiman Shah; 1896-1937)
6. Sultan Sir Hisamuddin Alam Shah Al-Haj (Tengku Alam Shah; 1937-1942, 1945-1960)
7. Sultan Musa Ghiatuddin Riayat Shah (Tengku Musaeddin; during Japanese occupation 1942-1945)
8. Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah Al-Haj (Tengku Abdul Aziz Shah; 1960-2001)
9. Sultan Sharafuddin Idris Shah Al-Haj (Tengku Idris Shah; 2001-current)

4. Bugis in Pahang

After the Srivijaya empire collapsed, around the 1000, Pahang was claimed first by Siam, and then by Sultanate of Malacca. Pahang was fought over by the Portuguese, the Dutch, Johor, and Aceh for most of the 16th century. During this time, its population was mostly killed or enslaved, its rulers murdered and its economy ruined. After the decline of Aceh in the mid-17th century, Pahang came under the rule of Johor. However, Sultans of Pahang, descended from the Malacca and the Bendahara Johor royal dynasties, have ruled the state almost continuously from 1470, and gradually recovered a great degree of autonomy.

Following the elevation Sultan Abdul Jalil IV, the bendahara was granted Pahang as their personal fief. From thereon afterwards the Bendahara of Johor is known as the Bendahara in Pahang. They are also known as "Raja Bendahara" for their status as the rulers of the vassal state of Pahang. Pahang was the vassal of Johore Sultanate.Tun Abdul Majid was the first Raja Bendahara in Pahang(1777-1802).

From 1858 to 1863, Pahang was fought over in a civil war between the two sons of the reigning Bendahara Tun Ali(1806-1847), Tun Mutahir and Wan Ahmad. Tun Mutahir was the last Raja Bendahara. The war ended when Wan Ahmad proclaimed as the new sultan in 1887, but his role from that point onward was largely ceremonial, as the British forced him to sign a treaty bringing the country under control of a British Resident.

Wan Ahmad was the son of Tun Ali, descendant of Tun Abbas, Bendahara Seri Maharaja, Bendahara of Johore and Pahang,who was the non-royal son of Sultan Abdul Jalil Riayat Shah IV(source: wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tun_Habib_Abdul_Majid)

Tun Razak(2nd Prime Minister of Malaysia 1970-1976), Dato Sri Najib Razak(6th Prime Minister of Malaysia) are descendant of Bugis in Pahang. They are father and son.

5. Bugis in Kedah

6. Bugis in Trengganu

Sultan Zainal Abidin I, the 5th and youngest son of Bendahara Tun Habib

7. Bugis in Singapore

The Bugis came from the Celebes Islands in Indonesia. They were well known for a long time as maritime traders. In the mid-seventeenth century, the Bugis were spreading out from Celebes to set up trading centres throughout the region. Often they had to sail to distant lands and fight indigenous tribes. They rarely lost and acquired a reputation as fierce warriors.

The Dutch control of the Dutch East Indies and their blockades cut off the Bugis from their traditional spice trade routes from Celebes to Java. This forced them to migrate to other areas to continue trading. Their migration to what is today Malaysia, Singapore and Riau began around the 18th century or even earlier. At the beginning of the 19th century, the number of Bugis traders in the region increased. Their influence in Riau was strong. Among the Bugis traders were also members of the nobility like Engku Karaeng Talibak who married the daughter of Raja Ali Haji. According to Raja Ali Haji in his work, Tuhfat al-Nafis, the presence of Karaeng Talibak brought more Bugis traders to Riau.

The establishment of a free port in Singapore allowed the Bugis to expand their network in the archipelago. Sailing from Sumatra to north Australia, the Bugis ships brought cargoes of cotton cloth, gold dust, birds-of-paradise feathers, pepper, trepang (sea slugs), sandalwood, tortoiseshell, coffee and rice to Singapore. Most of these goods were very much in demand by the Chinese merchants in Singapore. The Bugis also traded in slaves.

James Cameron gave a description in 1865 of the various ships that would visit Singapore’s harbour. According to him, each year during October and November, the Bugis ships would come from Bali and the Celebes.

By the 1830s, the Bugis had established themselves in Singapore and formed the majority of the pioneer communities in the Kampung Gelam area. By 1881, the Census of Population reported 2,053 Bugis in Singapore. The Bugis gradually formed kampongs and settlements in places like Kampung Bugis (around the Kallang River), Kampung Soopoo, Jalan Pelatok and Jalan Pergam.

(source; wikipedia)

Current migration of Bugis to Sabah
8. Bugis in Sabah(Modern Malaysia)

Bugis of Sabah refers the majority of Indonesian Citizens in Sabah. There are a lot of Bugis tribe residing in Sabah, mainly on the east coast and particularly around the districts of Tawau, Semporna, Kunak and Lahad Datu. Today, there are more than hundred thousands of Indonesian Citizens in Sabah especially Tawau are Bugises and the rest of are Timors and Torajas. Some of them are now become the Malaysian citizen although they have a very good relationship with their relatives in Indonesia.

Since 1970, several groups of Indonesian Bugises are invited to Tawau in Sabah. They are Indonesian Contract Workers for British Rubber and Abaka ( BAL ) Plantation at Table Estates, Imam Estate, Tiger Estate, Burut Estate and Merotai Estate. At that time, all of them decided to work in Sabah temporarily. But soon, they changed their plan and keep staying in Malaysia until they become an Malaysian Citizen. Lived with Tawau Malay ( natives ) people, they learn to speak Tawau Malay language and slang(loghat). This is the way how they try to be part of society of Malay People in Tawau. This Indonesian's Bugises community lived in plantation estates until now and their number is not a big enough.

But the big history of the existence of Indonesian Bugises in Sabah was after 1980. It was the time when Sabah was become developing country. Because of the economic problem in South Sulawesi, there are a lot of Bugises Indonesia, came from Sulawesi to find jobs in Sabah especially at Tawau as construction workers, plantation workers, transportation workers and market saler. And now there are more than 500,000 of them around Sabah and their numbers is cannot be controlled. However, the biggest problem are there was also a very large number of non-registered and illegal Bugises immigrants comes from South Sulawesi Indonesia.

For now, the huge number of the legal and illegal Bugises Indonesian immigrants in Sabah especially Tawau is the very main problem that cannot be settled. Some of them are tried to get the citizenship with any way or any cost. They afford to use the wrong information or false document for apply the citizenship of Malaysia or Mycard. Many of these immigrants are caught by the police officers for this activities. In case, many Indonesian people have arrested because of having not original My Card or Passport's document.

The expansion of the Bugis influence to Sabah began in the 20th century when members of the tribe migrated from Sulawesi to Java, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia and Borneo. Some Bugises men left their origin's place forever, came to Tawau and make a new family by married with the natives people such as Suluk girl or Tidong girl. For example, Daing Mapata married the Tidong girl and Daing Kerahu married the Suluk girl. They live with their new family in Tawau. Live with Suluk or Tidong culture, they are become a Tawau Malay people. Their son, Ahmad ( Linat ) Mapata and Zainal Kerahu assumed that they are Tidong or Suluk man according to their family ( mother's family or grandfather's family ) in Tawau. They became two of many leader for all Malay people ( including Local Malaysian Suluk, Tidung, Arab, Jawa, Iban, Cocos etc ) in Tawau.

However, only in 1980 did some move to Tawau, where they settled at Ranggu, which was founded by the chief village K.K. Salim's grandmother of Sungai Imam village, Bombalai. The settlers were traders, and later others came as workers on plantations established by the British. Later, Petta Senong, who was a member of the Bone royalty, resided in the same village. He was sent by the Sulu government to stop the piracy around the Sulu Sea. The Bugis continued to explore new places to develop Tawau town; among the Bugis settlers were Puang Ado, Wak Neke (Jawa), Wak Gempe (Jawa) and Haji Osman (Suluk).

(source: wikipedia)

Setelah Bugis berjaya menawan Riau, Raja Sulaiman kemudiannya pulang ke Pahang, manakala raja Bugis pula pergi ke Selangor untuk mengumpulkan bala tentera dan senjata untuk terus menyerang Raja Kechil. Semasa peninggalan tersebut, Raja Kechil telah menawan semula Riau semasa raja Bugis masih berada di Selangor.

Setelah mendapat tahu Riau telah ditawan oleh Raja Kechil, Bugis terus kembali dengan 30 buah kapal perang untuk menebus semula Riau, semasa dalam perjalanan menuju ke Riau, mereka telah menawan Linggi (sebuah daerah di Negeri Sembilan) yang dikuasai oleh Raja Kechil. Setelah Raja Kechil mendapat tahu akan penawanan itu, baginda telah datang ke Linggi untuk menyerang balas.

Pehak Bugis telah berpecah dimana 20 buah dari kapal perangnya meneruskan perjalanan menuju ke Riau dan diketuai oleh 3 orang dari mereka. Raja Sulaiman telah datang dari Pahang dan turut serta memberi bantuan untuk menawan semula Riau. Dalam peperangan ini mereka telah berjaya menawan kembali Riau dimana kemudiannya Raja Sulaiman dan Bugis telah mendirikan kerajaan bersama.

Setelah mengetahui penawanan Riau tersebut, Raja Kechil kembali ke Siak kerana baginda juga telah gagal menawan semula Linggi dari tangan Bugis. Hingga kini Linggi telah didiami turun-temurun oleh keturunan Bugis dan bukan daerah Minangkabau.

Pada tahun 1729, Bugis sekali lagi menyerang Raja Kechil di Siak dimasa Raja Kechil ingin memindahkan alat kebesaran DiRaja Johor (Sebuah Meriam) ke Siak. Setelah mengambil semula kebesaran DiRaja tersebut, Raja Sulaiman kemudiannya ditabalkan sebagai Sultan Johor dengan membawa gelaran Sultan Sulaiman Badrul Alam Shah yang memerintah Johor, Pahang, Riau, and Linggi.

Sultan Sulaiman telah melantik Daeng Marewah sebagai Yamtuan Muda Riau. Kemudian adik perempuannya Tengku Tengah pula dikahwinkan dengan Daeng Parani yang mana telah mangkat di Kedah semasa menyerang Raja Kechil disana. Seorang lagi adik Sultan Sulaiman Tengku Mandak dikahwinkan dengan Daeng Chelak(1722-1760) yang dilantik sebagai Yamtuan Muda II Riau 1730an. Kemudian anak Daeng Parani, Daeng Kemboja dilantik menjadi Yamtuan Muda III Riau (yang juga memerintah Linggi di Negeri Sembilan).

Anak Daeng Chelak, Raja Haji dilantik sebagai Yamtuan Muda IV Riau dimana baginda telah hampir dapat menawan Melaka dari tangan Belanda dalam tahun 1784 tetapi akhirnya baginda mangkat setelah ditembak dengan peluru Lela oleh Belanda di Telok Ketapang, Melaka. Baginda telah dikenali sebagai Al-Marhum Telok Ketapang.

Dalam tahun 1730an, seorang Bugis bernama Daeng Mateko yang berbaik dengan Raja Siak mengacau ketenteraman Selangor.

Ini menjadikan Daeng Chelak datang ke Kuala Selangor dengan angkatan perang dari Riau. Daeng Mateko dapat dikalahkan kemudiannya beliau lari ke Siak. Dari semenjak itulah daeng Chelak sentiasa berulang-alik dari Riau ke Kuala Selangor. Lalu berkahwin dengan Daeng Masik Arang Pala kemudian dibawa ke Riau.

Ketika Daeng Chelak berada di Kuala Selangor penduduk Kuala Selangor memohon kepada beliau supaya terus menetap di situ sahaja. Walau bagaimana pun Daeng Chelak telah menamakan salah seorang daripada puteranya iaitu Raja Lumu datang ke Kuala Selangor. Waktu inilah datang rombongan anak buahnya dari Riau memanggil Daeng Chelak pulang ke Riau dan mangkat dalam tahun 1745.

Daeng CHELAK ibni Daeng Rilaga

DIED : 1745
FATHER : Upu Tendriburang Daeng RILAGA
PARTNER : Tengku Mandak binti al-Marhum Sultan Abdul Djalil Riayat Shah

1. HH Sultan SALEHUDDIN Shah ibni al-Marhum Daeng Cellak [ - 1785]
2. Tengku Putih binti al-Marhum Daeng Cellak
3. Tengku Hitam binti al-Marhum Daeng Cellak
4. Raja HAJI ibni al-Marhum Daeng Cellak [ - 1784]
5. Tengku Bulang binti al-Marhum Daeng Cellak

Raja Ahmad al Linggi mempunyai salasilah Bugis dari perkahwinan antara anak perempuan Daeng Chelak iaitu Tengku Putih dengan Raja Johor Riau yang ketiga iaitu Sultan Abd Jalil ke V yang merupakan ayahanda kepada Raja Ahmad al Linggi.

Manakala isteri kepada Daeng Chelak iaitu Tengku Mandak memang merupakan seorang puteri dari kesultanan Johor Riau iaitu anak kepada Sultan Abd Jalil Riayat Shah.(Paduka Sri Sultan ‘Abdu’l Jalil IV Ri’ayat Shah bin Dato Bendahara Tun Abdul Majid (Tahun 1699 – 1721))

Perkahwinan antara ayahanda Raja Ahmad iaitu Sultan Abdul Jalil ke V dengan Tengku Puteh Daeng Chelak ini merupakan satu pertautan kembali hubungkait mereka dengan keturunan Bendahara Tun Abdul Majid. I ni kerana Tengku Puteh Daeng Chelak merupakan cucu kepada Sultan Abd Jalil IV Riayat Shah bin Tun Habib Abdul Majid.

Percaturan yang menyaksikan bahwa Raja Ahmad al Linggi mempunyai darah keturunan bangsawan Bugis, Melayu dan Arab.

Raja Ahmad turut mempunyai salasilah dari keturunan Raja Bugis iaitu dari DAENG CHELAK melalui anaknya yang menjadi Yam Tuan Muda Riau ke II iaitu Raja Haji yang mati syahid melawan Belanda dan digelar Marhum Syahid Ketapang.

(draft - to be updated/translated......)

Related articles

1. Warrior Princes of Sulawesi, http://www.sabrizain.org/malaya/dutch3.htm
2. Madmud, Sultan of Riao & Lingga(1823-1864), by V Mathson
3. Raja Haji Ali, http://www.rajaalihaji.com/en/( A tribute website to Raja Haji Ali)
4. Hikayat Upu Daeng Menambun(1980), by Rogayah A. Hamid, published by Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka, Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia (Kuala Lumpur), (in Malay)
5. Daeng Parani, by http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daeng_Parani
6. Kota Mempawah, http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kota_Mempawah(in Bahasa Indonesia)
7. The first two sultanates in Pontianak(1998)
8. Keturunan Daeng Paroni Gembira Dengan Pengesahan Kubur Pahlawan(2007), Bernama dated 24-6-2007, http://www.bernama.com/bernama/v3/bm/news_lite.php?id=269307