Monday, February 1, 2010

Johor Empire & its royalties

The Johor Sultanate continued the system of administration previously practiced in Malacca. The highest authority lay in the hands of the Yang di-Pertuan who was known as the Sultan. The Sultan was assisted by a body known as the Majlis Orang Kaya (literally mean Council of Rich Men in Malay language, but actually was House of Lords or Ministers ) which was tasked with advising the Sultan. Among them were the Bendahara, Temenggong, Laksamana, Shahbandar and Seri Bija Diraja. During the 18th century, the Bendahara lived in Pahang and the Temenggong Johor in Teluk Belanga, Singapore. Each one managed the administration of their individual areas based on the level of authority bestowed upon them by the Sultan of Johor.

The Johor Empire is decentralized. It is made of four main fiefs and the Sultan's territory. The fiefs are:

1. Muar and its territories under the Raja Temenggung of Muar;
2. Pahang under the stewardship of the Bendehara;
3. Riau under the control of Yam Tuan Muda and
4. Mainland Johor and Singapore under the Temenggung.

The rest of the Empire belongs to the Sultan. The Sultan resides in Lingga. All the Orang Kayas(literally means rich man in Malay, but is similar to Lords or Ministers) except Raja Temenggung Muar reports directly to the Sultan ; Raja Temenggung Muar is a sovereign and is recognised by the Sultan.

The Ministers

1. Bendahara - A bendahara was appointed by a sultan and was a hereditary post. It was the office that is held by bendahara family. The bendahara and the Sultan shared the same lineage. Bendahara is the head of the nobility, the status confers certain responsibility. The bendehara is the backbone of the Malay Sultanate. Minister of Adat or Prime Minister, but unlike the modern Prime Minister which have strong political power over Sultan; in ancient time the Sultan had the ultimate authority, Bendahara is only the highest official under Sultan.
2. Temenggong - chief of public security. The Temenggung is usually responsible for the safety of the monarch as well as the state police and army. The office was usually a stepping stone to the higher title of Bendahara, or Grand vizier. He watch over peace and harmony in the state as well as to supervise the smooth flow of commerce in the country. With the presence of the Orang Laut as the prime source of manpower to safeguard the waters of Strait of Malacca so as to encourage trade. Deputy Prime Minister cum Trade & Security Minister
3. Laksamana - a military position within the arm forces, mainly navy for port state, similar to the position of admiral. The office of the Laksamana was established during the reign of Sultan Mansor Shah (1456-1477). It was originally 'designated' by the Emperor of Majapahit, and later formalized by Sultan Mansor Shah. The first person to hold the office was Hang Tuah. It was placed on a par at court with that of the Sen Bija Diraja since the holders of both offices took turns to bear the Sword of State. Therefore, the duties and jurisdiction of the Laksamana were similar those of the Seri Bija Diraja. However, as the position of the Laksamana became more firmly established and more influential in Malacca, the status of the Sen Bija Diraja gradually declined.
4. Shahbandar - equivalent to harbour master
5. Penghulu Bendahari - Collector of revenue, equivalent to Finance Minister
6. Seri Bija Diraja - chief of all the armed forces at sea and on land(Defense Minister).

The system of the Four Great Lords: The 'Big Four' were without doubt the Bendahara, the Penghulu Bendahari, the Temenggung and the Laksamana. Those who held these offices must be indigenous and were appointed in a regular manner based on the traditions and customs or were appointed amongst new leaders who had performed meritorious service for the ruler. Heriditary appointment was dealt with within the family, especially with regard to the most important offices which had been inherited down the ages, such as those of the Bendahara, Penghulu Bendahari and Perdana Menteri.

Johor Empire/Johor-Riau-Lingga Sultanate

The Johore Sultanate historically divided into 3 periods;

1. Malacca-Johore Dynasty - Jambi Malay
2. Bendahara Dynasty - Bugis
3. Temenggong Dynasty(Modern Johore)- Bugis

The Bendahara dynasty of Johor lend its name from its founding ruler, Sultan Abdul Jalil Riayat Shah IV who served as a Bendahara prior to his ascension as the Sultan of the Johor-Riau empire.

House of Bendahara

House of Bendahara, established by Sultan Abdul Jalil Riayat Shah IV which ruled Johor from 1699 until 1812 (albeit an interregnum between 1718 to 1722). In 1812, the death of Sultan Mahmud Shah III sparked a succession crisis between Tengku Abdul Rahman and his younger brother Tengku Hussein. The British, who came to the region in 1819 saw a royal house rivaled by succession dispute and took to task of recognising Sultan Hussein Shah as the Sultan of Johor and Singapore, while giving Tengku Abdul Rahman the title "Ruler of Singapore. The royal regalia was given to the Lingga-based Tengku Abdul Rahman who was supported by the Bugis nobles and Bendahara Ali of Pahang. The Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824 had the effect of splitting the royal household into two factions:

1. House of Bendahara (Johor): Based in Johor, this branch was headed by Sultan Hussein Shah until his death in 1824, although the Temenggong wielded more actual authority than the Sultan, largely because of a lack of legitimate recognition among the Malay nobles. Hussein Shah's successor, Ali, while he managed to get hold of the royal seal to claim legitimacy to his rule,House of Riau-Lingga: This branch was based in Lingga and headed by Sultan Abdul Rahman, who was supported by the Bugis nobles. He later died in 1832 and was succeeded by his son, Muhammad Shah and subsequently his grandson, Mahmud Muzaffar Shah in 1841. Sultan Mahmud Muzaffar Shah was deposed in 1857 by the Dutch,which was also supported by the Bugis nobles. In his later years, he began to claim recognition as the legitimate ruler of the Johor-Riau empire. This royal house lasted until 3 February 1911, when the Dutch assumed full control over Riau and Lingga was quickly overshadowed by the more powerful Temenggong. Under British pressure, he was forced to cede soveriginity rights over Johor (except Muar) to Temenggong Daing Ibrahim in 1855. Sultan Ali died in 1877.

2.House of Riau-Lingga: This branch was based in Lingga and headed by Sultan Abdul Rahman, who was supported by the Bugis nobles. He later died in 1832 and was succeeded by his son, Muhammad Shah and subsequently his grandson, Mahmud Muzaffar Shah in 1841. Sultan Mahmud Muzaffar Shah was deposed in 1857 by the Dutch, which was also supported by the Bugis nobles.In his later years, he began to claim recognition as the legitimate ruler of the Johor-Riau empire. This royal house lasted until 3 February 1911, when the Dutch assumed full control over Riau and Lingga

List of Bendahara

* Tun Khoja, Bendahara Paduka Raja, Bendahara of Johore
* Tun Biajid, Bendahara Seri Maharaja, Bendahara of Johore
* Tun Mahmud, Bendahara Tun Narawangsa, Bendahara of Johore
* Tun Isap Misai, Bendahara Seri Maharaja, Bendahara of Johore
* Tun Sri Lanang, Bendahara Paduka Raja, Bendahara of Johore. He was captured by the Achenese forces and opted to remain in Acheh.

The following Bendaharas were sidelined by the palace following the rise of Laksamana Paduka Tuan

* Tun Anum, Bendahara Seri Maharaja, Bendahara of Johore
* Tun Mat Ali, Bendahara Paduka Tuan, Bendahara of Johore
* Tun Rantau, Bendahara Seri Maharaja, Bendahara of Johore. He was captured by the Jambi forces.

* Tun Habib Abdul Majid(1637-1697), 19th Bendahara Seri Maharaja, Bendahara Padang Saujana, restored back the position of the bendahara in the palace.

* Tun Abdul Jalil, 20th Bendahara Paduka Raja, was elevated to the Sultan of Johore, Sultan Abdul Jalil IV following the death of Sultan Mahmud II. The Temenggung branch of his dynasty still rules the Malaysian state of Johore today. He was the son of Tun Habib Abdul Majid.

* Tun Abbas, Bendahara Seri Maharaja, Bendahara of Johore and Pahang. He was the non-royal son of Sultan Abdul Jalil Riayat Shah IV.

House of Bendahara (Pahang)

House of Bendahara (Pahang):

Following the elevation Sultan Abdul Jalil IV, the bendahara was granted Pahang as their personal fief. From thereon afterwards the Bendahara of Johor is known as the Bendahara in Pahang. They are also known as "Raja Bendahara" for their status as the rulers of the vassal state of Pahang. Pahang was the vassal of Johore Sultanate.
Bendahara in Pahang

* Tun Abdul Majid, Raja Bendahara Pahang I (1777-1802)
* Tun Muhammad, Raja Bendahara Pahang II
* Tun Koris, Bendahara Paduka Raja, Raja Bendahara Pahang III (1803-1806)
* Tun Ali, Bendahara Siwa Raja, Raja Bendahara Pahang IV (1806-1847)
* Tun Mutahir, Bendahara Seri Maharaja, Raja Bendahara Pahang V (1847-1863). He is the last reigning Raja Bendahara of Pahang. He was ousted by his brother Wan Ahmad who was later proclaimed as Sultan of Pahang after the dismemberment of the Johore Empire.

Tun Muhammad Tahir, better known as Tun Mutahir(1803-1863) was (Bendahara Seri Maharaja, Raja Bendahara Pahang V (1847-1863)) the last Bendahara of the Old Johor Sultanate. His father is Tun Ali, Bendahara Siwa Raja and his mother was Che Wan Ngah of the Bendahara family. He ruled the vassal state of Pahang until his death in 1863 following the Pahang Civil War.

Pahang Civil War

The war was between him and his brother Tun Ahmad, Tun Ahmad was the son born from Tun Ali's marriage with Chik Puan Lingga in 1832. Tun Ali entered into a semi-retirement in 1847 and handed the reins to Tun Mutahir. Tun Mutahir followed the policy of Bendahara Ali and not much is written about his reign. In 1857 Bendahara Ali signed a proclamation indicating that Tun Ahmad be put to death due to his misconduct. Bendahara Ali wanted Tun Ahmad and his accomplice be put to death.Tun Ahmad immedietely fled to Singapore and returned to Pahang at the time of the death of Tun Ali.

Conflict broke between both parties which resulted in a civil war which engulfed Pahang. This conflict not only involved the Pahang princes but also involved Temenggung of Johore, the Terengganu Sultan as well as the British playing a political role. The war is the most decisive in the history of the Old Johore Sultanate. The conflict ended when Tun Mutahir was mortally wounded in 1863, and passed away. Tun Mutahir was buried in Bukit Timbalan, Johor Bahru, Johor.

Tun Ahmad was proclaimed as Sultan Ahmad I in 1882 and founded the modern Pahang Sultanate which sealed the breakup of the Johor Sultanate. The Temenggung of Johor (Maharaja 1868–1885) was given recognition by the British and proclaimed the Sultan of Johor three years later.

The current Sultan of Pahang traces his lineage to Sultan Wan Ahmad of Pahang, a descendant of Tun Abbas,a son of Sultan Abdul Jalil Riayat Shah IV. (At one point of time another royal lineage that was related to the Malacca royal family (descended from Parameswara) also ruled Pahang, but later died out

House of Temenggong (Johor)

In the Sultanate of Johor, the Temenggung of Muar held a fief (centered in Segamat) for approximately 2 centuries and the Temenggung of Johor was of the head of fief (Johor mainland) between 1760 and 1868. The full rendition of the Johor Temenggung was Temenggung Seri Maharaja. Although the Temenggung was the head of the fief's administration, the Temenggung held the kingdom of Johor and Singapore by virtue of his being a vassal of the Sultan. During that time, the sultan was practically a puppet. In 1868, Temenggung Abu Bakar declared himself as a maharaja, assumed control over Muar and declared himself an independent ruler. In 1885, he assumed the title of sultan with the blessing of Britain.

The Temenggong Dynasty commenced after the split of Johore sultanate into Pahang and Johor sultanate, Johore or Modern Johor Sultanate was ruled by Temenggong Dynasty. Riau-Lingga sultanate has already split after 1824 Treaty of Anglo-Dutch.

House of Temenggong (Johor), established by Temenggong Tun Daeng Ibrahim, a descendant of Sultan Abdul Jalil Riayat Shah IV by his non-royal son Tun Abbas. The present Sultan of Johor belongs to this royal house.

Members of the Temenggong dynasty (founded by Sultan Abu Bakar of Johor) is traces its descent back to Sultan Abdul Jalil Riayat Shah IV. The Temenggong dynasty was founded as its founding ruler, Sultan Abu Bakar was a Temenggong prior to his ascension to the throne, and many of his ancestors had served as Temenggongs before him. (Sultan Abu Bakar is descended from Tun Abbas, a son of Sultan Abdul Jalil Riayat Shah IV).

Raja Temenggong of Muar
Raja Temenggung of Muar (also known by the title of Temenggong Paduka Tuan of Muar)is a noble title used to refer to the family of Dato' Pasir Raja and his descendants, which ruled the Muar fief, which was a part of the Johor Empire from the middle of the seventeenth century onwards.

During the mid-seventeenth century, the Sultan of Johor took the hand of Marhum Bakal, the sister of Bendahara Tun Habib Abdul Majid and Sayyid Ja'afar, the Dato' Pasir Raja. As a dowry, Dato' Pasir Raja was granted the fief of Muar. The first Raja Temenggung of Muar is Sa Akar di-Raja whose mausoleum is found Kampung Lubuk Batu, Segamat next to the mausoleum of Bendahara Tepok founder of Segamat; his descendants were similarly buried at Kampung Lubuk Batu. The 7th Raja Temenggung, Engku Abdul Salleh, was buried in Pengkalan Kota, their administrative centre

In the early nineteenth century, the fief was divided into eight hamlets, each ruled by a chieftain with the Raja Temengung of Muar as the head of the "federation".

The list of Raja Temenggung
* Sa Akar Di-Raja, Raja Temenggung Muar I
* Sa Amar Di-Raja, Raja Temenggung Muar II
* Engku Burok, Raja Temenggung Muar III
* Engku Kunit, Raja Temenggung Muar IV
* Engku Said, Raja Temenggung Muar V
* Engku Ismail, Raja Temenggung Muar VI
* Engku Muhammad Salleh, Raja Temenggung Muar VII
* Wan Abdul Rahman, Raja Temenggung Muar VIII (the last Raja Temenggung)

The end of Raja Temenggung Muar

In the early nineteenth century, the fief was divided into eight hamlets, each ruled by a chieftain with the Raja Temengung of Muar as the head of the "federation".

Muar was caught in a power grab by the Maharaja of Johor, Abu Bakar after its puppet ruler, Sultan Ali passed away. Sultan Ali Iskandar Shah ibni Hussein Muazzam Shah was the 19th Sultan of Johor, who succeeded his father, Sultan Hussein after the latter died of natural cause in 1835. Over the next twenty years, Sultan Ali's claims to the office of Sultan of Johor were only recognised by some merchants and a few Malays. Like his father, Sultan Ali's was much of a puppet monarch and played a very minimal role in the administrative affairs of the state, which came under the charge of the Temenggong and the British. In 1855, Sultan Ali ceded the sovereignty rights of Johor (except Muar) to Temenggong Daing Ibrahim in 1855, in exchange for a formal recognition as the "Sultan of Johor" by the British and a monthly allowance. Following the secession of Johor, Sultan Ali was granted administrative charge over Muar until his death in 1877, and in most administrative matters, was often styled as the "Sultan of Muar"

When the Sultan passed away in 1877, he nominated Tengku Mahmud to inherit the Kesang territory. The Sultan's decision took Tengku Alam and his supporters in Singapore to anger. Tengku Alam Shah bin Ali Iskandar Shah was a prince of the House of Bendahara (Johor), and was the oldest son of Sultan Ali, the 19th Sultan of Johor by his second wife, Daing Siti. The British on their part, refused to recognise Sultan Ali's will on his son's (Tengku Mahmud) hereditary claims to the Kesang territory. Without the British pressure, recognition of Tengku Alam was a foregone conclusion.

Meanwhile, the chieftains and village headmen in the Kesang territory held their own elections for a new leader, and voted for the Maharaja of Johor, Abu Bakar to take charge of Muar, which the British accepted the outcome of the poll. The Acting Governor of the Straits Settlement, Edward Anson, allowed Abu Bakar to take interim control over the Kesang territory.

Tengku Alam and his supporters were extremely unhappy with Maharaja Abu Bakar's intervention over the Kesang territory. A long time of Tengku Alam, W.H. Read helped to lobby in Tengku Alam's cause. Supporters of Tengku Alam had criticised the irregularities in the electoral process, by claiming that the Maharaja had coerced the Muar chiefs into voting for him prior to the election, and called for an election with Tengku Alam's family members as the electors. Tengku Alam's supporters argued that the 1855 secession treaty which Sultan Ali had signed with Temenggong of Johor guaranteed the hereditary rights of Sultan Ali's family members to the Kesang territory. Tengku Alam's claims were fell on deaf ears, and the British government, with the assistance of Engku Mandak, proceeded with the electoral process into 1878.

Meanwhile, the British authorities allowed Tengku Alam to inherit the $500 monthly allowance which Sultan Ali had received from the Temenggong's family, and gave him an additional $68 monthly allowance from the British East India Company. An angry Tengku Alam was declined these allowances from the British.

On 11 January 1879, a few hundred Bugis and Malay supporters proclaimed Tengku Alam with the title of "Sultan Alauddin 'Alam Shah, Sultan of Johor and Pahang" during his marriage ceremony. Tengku Alam's proclamation briefly generated serious concern from Maharaja Abu Bakar and the British government, who feared that Abu Bakar's political position could be a sign of a potential threat to his political position, especially after Tengku Alam had made a public declaration to challenge Abu Bakar for his claims to the Kesang territory.In October, a frustrated Tengku Alam and his supporters launched a civil war in Jementah which was quickly subdued by the British authorities.

Jementah Civil War 1879
Within the same year, a brief civil war erupted in Jementah, after repeated attempts to get his claims to the Kesang territory being recognized failed. Continued claims by Tengku Alam and his supporters resulted in the outbreak of the Jementah Civil War the following year, in which the British forces (allied with the Maharaja) subdued Tengku Alam's supporters. The Muar Temenggung was subsequently paid an annual stipend by the Maharaja (Sultan after 1885) as part of a settlement treaty made on 5 February 1879 with the annexation of the Muar fiefdom.

Tengku Alam returned to Singapore and lived out his remaining years quietly at Istana Kampong Glam, where he died in 1891. The office of the Temenggung of Muar was later abolished in 1902.

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1 comment:

  1. Thanks for your post, I'm having Malaysia Study test tomorrow. :)