Monday, January 11, 2010


Pahang (Jawi: ڨهڠ) is the third largest state in Malaysia, after Sarawak and Sabah, occupying the huge Pahang River river basin. It is bordered to the north by Kelantan, to the west by Perak, Selangor, Negeri Sembilan, to the south by Johor and to the east by Terengganu and the South China Sea.

Pahang is the largest state in the Malay Peninsula. Total land area is 35,515 square kilometres. There are 11 districts in Pahang; which are Kuantan, Maran, Pekan, Rompin, Temerloh, Jerantut, Bentong, Raub, Lipis ,Cameron Highlands and Bera. People of various religions and races make up the population. Its state capital is Kuantan, and the royal seat is at Pekan. Other important towns include Jerantut, Kuala Lipis, Temerloh and the hill resorts of Genting Highlands, Cameron Highlands, Bukit Tinggi and Fraser's Hill.

The Arabic honorific of Pahang is Darul Makmur ("Abode of Tranquility").

Map of Pahang

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1460 Negeri Pahang Darul Makmur established.
1617 Acheh conquered Pahang in 1617,
1623 - 1853 In personal union with Johor, eventually becoming a
fief of the Bendahara.
Aug 1888 British protectorate.
1 Jul 1896 Part of Federated Malay States.
3 Jan 1942 - 12 Sep 1945 Occupied by Japan (Malay Federation).
1 Apr 1946 Joins Malay Union
31-8-1957 State of independent Malaya
16 Sep 1963 State of Malaysia

Historical Pahang
1. Pre History Period
Archeologists had done many researches and excavation works in various sites in Pahang. Popular archaeological sites are caves, mountains, river banks, old mining areas and a few open spaces. Amongst the artifacts discovered were stone implements, ceramics / earthen-wares, bronze and iron implements.
The well known archaelogical sites in Pahang are; Kota Tongkat, Kota Gelanggi (near Jerantut); Gua Kecil (Raub); Gunung Senyum, Bukit Chintamanis (Karak); Sungai Lembing, Tersang (Kuala Lipis); Sungai Selinsing, Sungai Tui, Nyong, Teluk Lubuk Puai, Batu Pasir Garam, Bukit Jong and Kg. Pagi (the meeting point of Sungai Tembeling and Sungai Pahang). Most of the artifacts discovered underneath the ground were artifacts made of stone; made and used by the mesolithic people.
Archaeologists believed that the mesolithic people lived in caves and mountains. They were the first to arrive at the Asian Mainland and Malay Peninsula. The Malay Proto group, started to live in the Peninsula about 3000 / 2000 B.C.
Several agricultural implements were found underneath the ground. Archaelogists belived that they were made by the people from the last Stone Age. The implements were the heads of spears, knivers, scythes, hoes and other unusual iron implements.
These artifacts were found of several places; by the Sungai Lembing , Teluk Lubuk Puai and Bukit Jong (by Sungai Lipis). In Kampung Batu Pasir Garam (by Sungai Tembeling), archaelogists discovered a fraction of an ancient drum made of bronze or Dong S'on Drum. It was used by the people who observed the Bronze Culture. Dr. Linehan stated that this Dong S'on Drum was made in Indo-China and brought over from Funan to Ulu Tembeling sometime in the 3rd century together with implements made from ancient irons.
According to anthropologists and historians, the deutro Malays were the ancestors of the Malays living in the coastal districts of the Malay Peninsula. In ancient times, besides the aborigines ( the Semang tribes ), Pahang was inhabited by the Middle Age men and the Last Stone Age ( early Bronze Age men).
Evidence for nomadic tribes living in the Pahang area go back to the Mesolithic Era.

During the 8th and 9th centuries Pahang was part of the Sri Vijaya empire which covered most of southern Peninsular Malaysia. With the collapse of the empire Pahang came firstly under the control of Siam (Thailand today) and then of the Melaka empire. It was in turmoil for the most part of the 16th century as the Portuguese, Dutch, Johor and Acheh fought for control. In mid 17th century Pahang became part of the Johor-Riau Empire.

2. Sri vijaya
In more modern times, the tin and gold deposits of the Tembeling River attracted the marine traders of the Srivijaya empire in the eighth and ninth centuries, and Pahang covered most of the southern half of the Malay Peninsula.

3. Siam
After the Srivijaya empire collapsed, around the 1000, Pahang was claimed first by Siam since 14th century.

4. Malacca Sultanate(?-1511)
Sultanate of Malacca(1402-1511)defeated Siam in the mid 15th century. The eldest son of the Malacca Sultan, Mohammad was installed as ruler.

Prior to the establishment of the Malacca Sultanate, Pahang was in control of the southern areas in the Malay Peninsula. The Majapahit people at that time reffered to the Peninsula simply as 'Pahang'. At the beginning of the 16th century, the period when the Malay State of Johor was established, the borders of Pahang were as follows; in the south at Sedili Besar, in the north reaching Terengganu. It's western borders of Pahang were as follows; in the south at Sedili Besar, in the north and west borders of Pahang are a chain of mountains, i.e. the Main Range. On the east side is the South China Sea.

When the Portuguese captured Malacca in 1511, the last Malaccan sultan, Mahmud Shah, fled to Johore, where he established the new Johore Sultanate. Singapura became part of this sultanate.

Pahang was fought over by the Portuguese, the Dutch, Johor, and Aceh for most of the 16th century. During this time, its population was mostly killed or enslaved, its rulers murdered and its economy ruined.

5. Autonomy 1470-?

(i)Sultan Muhamad Shah 1470-1699
The first Sultan was Sultan Muhamad Shah (1469-1475), the prince of the Sultan of Malacca. His descendants continued to hold the throne of Pahang for more than 200 years. The last from the family was Sultan Mahmud Shah, who died in 1699.
(ii)Bendahara Johor royal dynasties(1699-?)
Following his death, power was taken by the family of Bendahara Tuan Habib Abdul Majid, Padang Saujana. They established the independent influence of Riau-Lingga.

6. Johore Empire or Johor-Riau or Johor-Riau-Lingga( 1650?-1888?)
After the decline of Aceh in the mid-17th century, Pahang came under the rule of Johor. Johore ruled Pahang for for 200 years. The territory includes the vassal states of Pahang, Muar, Johor mainland and Riau Islands.
However, Sultans of Pahang, descended from the Malacca and the Bendahara Johor royal dynasties, have ruled the state almost continuously from 1470, and gradually recovered a great degree of autonomy.

7. Civil War 1858-1863

From 1858 to 1863, Pahang was fought over in a civil war between the two sons of the reigning Bendahara. Wan Ahmad and Mutahir.
In 1858, the death of the Bendahara (chief minister) Ali of Pahang resulted in a five-year civil war between his two sons ending with the youngest, Wan Ahmad,& Tun Mutahir who was mortally wounded in 1863. Wan Ahmad declaring himself the new Chief Minister in 1863. Wan Ahmad went on to proclaim himself Sultan in 1881. Thereafter, the British manifested conctrol and Pahang had to accept the appointment of a British Resident. The war ended when Wan Ahmad was proclaimed the new sultan in 1887, but his role from that point onward was largely ceremonial, as the British forced him to sign a treaty bringing the country under control of a British Resident.

8. British 1888 until 1957(except WW2)
The English came over and established their hegemony over Pahang in the late 19th century. J.P.Rodger was appointed as the first Resident in October 1888. Top priority was to centralize all administrative works Pekan was first chosen, but after 3 years, it was transfered to Lipis.

In 1896, Pahang joined Selangor, Perak, and Negeri Sembilan in the Federated Malay States.

In 1901, a plan was made to transfer the centre to a new and permanent site. Final decision was taken on 2nd March 1953. The State Government considered 2 sites, Temerloh / Mentakab and Kuantan. The former had a problem of uneven land; wich required vast amount of money to develop. It was settled Kuantan was to be new capital.

The late Sultan Abu Bakar proclaimed the new state capital on 27th August 1955. On 28th February 1970, all administrative works were centralized in the newly constructed Wisma Sri Pahang.

It finally joined the Federation of Malaya and eventually became part of Malaysia.

This evolved into the Federation of Malaya in 1948 and into the Federation of Malaysia in 1963.

Rulers, with the title Bendahara Seri Maharaja

1756 - 1802 Tun Abdul Majid bin Tun Hasan (b. 1718 - d. 1802)
1802 - 1803 Tun Muhammad bin Tun Abdul Majid (b. 17.. - d. 1803)
1803 - 1806 Tun Koris bin Tun Abdul Majid (b. 17.. - d. 1806)
1806 - 1857 Tun Ali bin Tun Koris (b. 1782 - d. 1857)
1857 - 30 May 1863 Tun Muhammad Tahir bin Tun Ali (b. 1813 - d. 1863)
30 May 1863 - 3 Jun 1863 Muda Koris bin Tun Muhammad Tahir (b. 18.. - d. 1863)
10 Jun 1863 - 6 Aug 1882 Tun Ahmad bin Tun Ali (b. 1836 - d. 1914)

Rulers with title Sultans¹

6 Aug 1882 - 3 Apr 1909 Tuanku Ahmad al-Muadzam Shah ibni (s.a.)
al-Marhum Tun Ali
3 Apr 1909 - 19 Jun 1917 Tuanku Mahmud Shah ibni al-Marhum
Sultan Ahmad al-Muadzam Shah (b. 1868 - d. 1917)
19 Jun 1917 - 23 Jun 1932 Tuanku Abdullah al-Mutasim Billah
ibni al-Marhum Sultan Ahmad
al-Muadzam Shah (b. 1874 - d. 1932)
23 Jun 1932 - 7 May 1974 Tuanku Abu Bakar Riayatuddin
al-Muadzam Shah ibni al-Marhum
Sultan Abdullah (b. 1904 - d. 1975)
7 May 1974 - Tuanku Ahmad Shah al-Mustain (b. 1930)
Billah ibni al-Marhum Sultan Abu
Bakar Riayatuddin al-Muadzam Shah
29 Mar 1979 - 25 Apr 1984 Tengku Abdullah -Regent (b. 1959)

¹Full style of the ruler: KeBawah Duli Yang Maha Mulia Sultan dan Yang di-Pertuan Negara Pahang Darul Makmur ("Sultan and Head of State of Pahang").

British Residents

Oct 1888 - Jun 1896 John Pickersgill Rodger (b. 1851 - d. 1910)
Jul 1896 - Dec 1899 Hugh Clifford (1st time) (b. 1866 - d. 1941)
Jan 1900 - Apr 1901 Arthur Butler (b. 18.. - d. 1901)
Feb 1901 - Mar 1901 D.H. Wise (acting)
Apr 1901 - Sep 1904 Sir Hugh Clifford (2nd time) (s.a.)
Sep 1904 - Mar 1908 Cecil Wray
Mar 1908 - Oct 1908 Harvey Chevallier (acting)
Oct 1908 - Dec 1909 Sir Edward Lewis Brockman (b. 1865 - d. 1943)
Jan 1910 - Jun 1911 Warren Delabere Barnes (b. 1865 - d. 19..)
Jun 1911 - 1916 Edward John Brewster (b. 1861 - d. 1931)
Mar 1912 - Apr 1913 F.J. Weld (acting for Brewster)
Feb 1916 - Jul 1921 Cecil William Chase Parr (b. 1871 - d. 1943)
Jul 1921 - 1926 Henry Wagstaffe Thomson (b. 1874 - d. 1941)
Nov 1921 - Sep 1922 F.A.S. McClelland (b. 1873 - d. 1947)
(acting for Thomson)
1926 - 1929 Arthur Furley Worthington (b. 1874 - d. 1964)
1929 - 1930 C.F.J Green
1931 - 1935 Hugh Goodwin Russell Leonard (b. 1880 - d. 19..)
Sep 1935 - 1941 Charles Cuthbert Brown (b. 1888 - d. 19..)
1937 - 1938 J.V. Cowgill (acting for Brown)

Japanese governors
1942 - Aug 1945 ....

British Resident Commissioners
1945 - 1946 ....
1 Apr 1946 - 1946 John Allen Harvey (1st time) (b. 1900)
9 Jun 1946 - 8 Jul 1946 Arthur Vincent Aston (b. 1896 - d. 1981)
1946 - 1948 Arthur Sleep (b. 1894 - d. 19..)
Aug 1947 - 194. John Allan Harvey (s.a.)
(acting for Sleep)
1948 - Feb 1953 Wilfred Charles Steuart Corry (b. 1900 - d. 1974)
1949? Laird (acting for Corry)
May 1950 - 1950 A. Hyde (acting for Corry)
Feb 1953 - Jul 1953 John L.H. Davis (acting) (b. 1911 - d. 2006)
Jul 1953 - Oct 1954 John Allen Harvey (2nd time) (s.a.)
Oct 1954 - Feb 1955 J.E.M. Cave
British Advisers
Feb 1955 - 1956 Maurice John Hayward (b. 1906)
1956 - 1957 ....

Chief ministers (title Menteri Besar)

1 Feb 1948 - 1 Feb 1951 Dato' Setia Wangsa Sir Mahmud bin
1 Feb 1951 - 1 Feb 1955 Tengku Panglima Perang Tengku
Mohamad ibni al-Marhum Sultan
Ahmad (1st time)
1 Feb 1955 - 15 Jun 1955 Orang Kaya Indera Shahbandar Abdul
Razak bin Hussein (b. 1922 - d. 1976)
15 Jun 1955 - 8 Jan 1957 Tengku Panglima Perang Tengku
Muhamad ibni al-Marhum Sultan
Ahmad (2nd time)
9 Jan 1957 - 18 Jul 1959 Datuk Kurnia Paduka Raja Abdullah
bin Tok Muda Ibrahim
18 Jul 1959 - 5 May 1964 Orang Kaya Indera Pahlawan Wan
Abdul Aziz bin Ungku Abdullah
5 May 1964 - 1 Sep 1972 Dato' Pentara Raja Tan Sri Yahaya
bin Mohd Seh
1 Sep 1972 - 18 Jul 1978 Datuk Seri Mohamad bin Jusoh UMNO
19 Jul 1978 - 7 Nov 1981 Datuk Abdul Rahim bin Bakar
11 Nov 1981 - 4 May 1982 Datuk Abdul Rashid bin Abdul
4 May 1982 - 14 Aug 1986 Dato' (from 24 Oct 1985, Dato'
Seri) Najib Tun Razak (b. 1953) UMNO/BN
14 Aug 1986 - 20 May 1999 Dato' (from 24 Oct 1987, Dato'
Seri; from 24 Apr 1989, Tan Sri)
Khalil Yaakob (b. 1937) UMNO/BN
20 May 1999 - Dato' (from 24 Oct 1999, Dato'
Seri; from 9 Oct 2004, Datuk Seri)
Adnan Yaakob (b. 1950) UMNO/BN

The Bugis, Johore Empire & Pahang

The Bugis (sometimes called the Ugi) live in the province of South Sulawesi. The Bugis region is called Tellumponcoe, and it consists of the regencies of Bone, Wajo, and Soppeng. There are also Bugis people settled throughout the regencies of Luwu, Sidenneng, Polmas, Pinrang, Pare-pare, Barru, Pangkajene, Maros, Bulukumba, and Sinjai. The Bugis are a dynamic and highly mobile people, considered by many to be the dominant people group in South Sulawesi. Many Bugis have left their home area to seek success and wealth. In particular, they have migrated to Sumbawa, Jawa, Papua, and even Malaysia. Their Ugi language is divided into several dialects, namely Luwu, Wajo, Bira Selayar, Palaka, Sindenneng and Sawito.

The Bugis are the most numerous of the three major linguistic and ethnic groups of South Sulawesi, the southwestern province of Sulawesi, Indonesia's third largest island.

The conclusion in 1669 of a protracted civil war led to a diaspora of Bugis and their entry into the politics of peninsular Malaysia and Sumatra. The Bugis played an important role in defeating Jambi and had a huge influence in Sultanate of Johor. Apart from the Malays, another influential faction in Johor at that time was the Minangkabau. Both the Bugis and the Minangkabau realized how the death of Sultan Mahmud II had provided them with the chance to exert power in Johor. Under the leadership of Daeng Parani, the descendants of two families settled on the Linggi and Selangor rivers and became the power behind the Johor throne, with the creation of the office of the Yang Dipertuan Muda (Yam Tuan Muda), or Bugis underking.

THE Bugis (sometimes called the Ugi) are a dynamic and highly mobile people who originated from the province of South Sulawesi (previously known as the Celebes). Skilled sailor-navigators, fighters and traders, many left their homes to seek success and wealth in the late 17th century. Some of them settled in Selangor on the west coast of peninsular Malaysia where they traded in tin. They were also active in Perak and Kedah.

The murder of its sultan in 1699, marking the extinction of the royal line of Malacca, and the periodic invasions of the Bugis from Sulawesi (Celebes), began the disintegration of the Riau Johore kingdom. The Bugis established themselves in Selangor, and in 1722 became de facto rulers of the Johore kingdom.
The Bugis captured Johor and Riau in 1721. In 1819, Johor was controlled by the Temenggong. The Riau-Linggi Sultanate, in the Riau Archipelago, was controlled by the Bugis.

Over time, the Bugis migrants adopted Malay-Muslim customs and merged with Malay society. Intermarriage secured the Bugis bloodline. As a result, Johor’s racial mix of Malays are mostly of Javanese and Bugis descent.

The descendants of settler Daing Hadadek are one such family in Johor proud of their Bugis heritage.

In the peninsula, the descendants of three prominent Bugis brothers — Daeng Perani, Daeng Merewah and Daeng Celak — settled down in Johor as well as Linggi (Port Dickson) and Selangor. One of the famous Bugis in Malaysia was Tun Abdul Razak(2nd Prime Minister of Malaysia) is a Bugis from Pahang.. His eldest son, Najib Abdul Razak is the current Prime Minister(was the 6th Prime Minister.

( subject to updates, to be continue....)

Related articles:
1. A history of Pahang Consolidated Company Limited, 1906-1966(1966), by Published by Pahang Consolidated Co., Ltd. (London)

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