Monday, February 1, 2010

Bugis in Early Malaysia

Bugis Diaspora

The Bugis (sometimes called the Ugi) live in the province of South Sulawesi. The Bugis region is called Tellumponcoe, and it consists of the regencies of Bone, Wajo, and Soppeng. There are also Bugis people settled throughout the regencies of Luwu, Sidenneng, Polmas, Pinrang, Pare-pare, Barru, Pangkajene, Maros, Bulukumba, and Sinjai. The Bugis are a dynamic and highly mobile people, considered by many to be the dominant people group in South Sulawesi. Many Bugis have left their home area to seek success and wealth. In particular, they have migrated to Sumbawa, Jawa, Papua, and even Malaysia. Their Ugi language is divided into several dialects, namely Luwu, Wajo, Bira Selayar, Palaka, Sindenneng and Sawito.

The Bugis are the most numerous of the three major linguistic and ethnic groups of South Sulawesi, the southwestern province of Sulawesi, Indonesia's third largest island.

The conclusion in 1669 of a protracted civil war led to a diaspora of Bugis and their entry into the politics of peninsular Malaysia and Sumatra.

The history of Bugis in Malaysia.

The Bugis played an important role in defeating Jambi and had a huge influence in Sultanate of Johor. Apart from the Malays, another influential faction in Johor at that time was the Minangkabau. Both the Bugis and the Minangkabau realized how the death of Sultan Mahmud II had provided them with the chance to exert power in Johor. Under the leadership of Daeng Parani, the descendants of two families settled on the Linggi and Selangor rivers and became the power behind the Johor throne, with the creation of the office of the Yang Dipertuan Muda (Yam Tuan Muda), or Bugis underking.

THE Bugis (sometimes called the Ugi) are a dynamic and highly mobile people who originated from the province of South Sulawesi (previously known as the Celebes). Skilled sailor-navigators, fighters and traders, many left their homes to seek success and wealth in the late 17th century. Some of them settled in Selangor on the west coast of peninsular Malaysia where they traded in tin. They were also active in Perak and Kedah.

The murder of its sultan in 1699, marking the extinction of the royal line of Malacca, and the periodic invasions of the Bugis from Sulawesi (Celebes), began the disintegration of the Riau Johore kingdom. The Bugis established themselves in Selangor, and in 1722 became de facto rulers of the Johore kingdom.

The Bugis captured Johor and Riau in 1721. In 1819, Johor was controlled by the Temenggong. The Riau-Linggi Sultanate, in the Riau Archipelago, was controlled by the Bugis.

Over time, the Bugis migrants adopted Malay-Muslim customs and merged with Malay society. Intermarriage secured the Bugis bloodline. As a result, Johor’s racial mix of Malays are mostly of Javanese and Bugis descent.

The descendants of settler Daing Hadadek are one such family in Johor proud of their Bugis heritage.

In the peninsula, the descendants of three prominent Bugis brothers — Daeng Perani, Daeng Merewah and Daeng Celak — settled down in Johor as well as Linggi (Port Dickson) and Selangor. One of the famous Bugis in Malaysia was Tun Abdul Razak(2nd Prime Minister of Malaysia) is a Bugis from Pahang.. His eldest son, Najib Abdul Razak is the current Prime Minister(was the 6th Prime Minister.

The Royal title of Bugis

Daheng or Daeng is a bugis title reserved for nobility not of royal descent.

Yang Dipertuan Muda or Yam Tuan Besar(Muda), a royal title which is hereditary for Bugis, and Sultan, Bendahara, Temenggong, were hereditary for Riau Malay. This was a political arrangement when the Bugis helped Raja Sulaiman of the Bendahara house to take the throne from Malacca sultanate bloodline(Raja Kechil). It had seen been a political tradition for Johor Empire. Under the leadership of Daeng Parani, the descendants of two families settled on the Linggi and Selangor rivers and became the power behind the Johor throne, with the creation of the office of the Yang Dipertuan Muda (Yam Tuan Muda), or Bugis underking. Some translator called the title Crown Prince(2nd ranking sultan)

List of Yam Tuan Muda
1.Daeng MEREWAH bin Daeng Rilaga 1721/1728
2.Upu Daeng CELLAK bin Daeng Rilaga 1728/1745
3.Daeng KAMBODJA bin Daeng Parani 1745/1777,(b1697-d1777)
4.Raja HAJI Fasibillah bin Daeng Cellak 1777/1784
5.Raja ALI I bin Daeng Kambodja 1784/1805
6.Raja JA'AFAR bin al-Marhum Raja Haji 1805/1831,(b 1770- d 1831)
7. HH Raja ABDUL RAHMAN bin al-Marhum Raja Ja'afar 1831/1844
8. HH Raja ALI II bin al-Marhum Raja Ja'afar 1844/1857,(b 1809- d 1857)
9.HH Raja Haji ABDULLAH bin al-Marhum Raja Ja'afar [Tengku Dalam Abdullah] 1857/1858, Chief of Klang 1854/1857, Orang Besar Klang [cr.1853],
10.HH Raja MUHAMMED YUSUF bin al-Marhum Raja Ali 1858/1899

1. Bugis and Johore Empire(Johor-Riau-Lingga Kingdom)

In 1718 the Raja Kecik of Siak, who claimed to be the unborn son of the late Sultan Mahmud Shah which died in 1699, attacked and conquered Johore kingdom. After one year later, Raja Kecik moved to Riau (Bintan) and ruled Johore kingdom from Riau. About three years later, Raja Sulaiman, the son of Sultan Abdul Jalil, managed to topple Raja Kecik from the throne with the help of five Bugis Princes. He than succeed the Johore throne as the Yang Dipertuan Besar with the title of Sultan Sulaiman Badrul Alam Shah, and the kingdom now know Johore – Riau kingdom. Sultan Sulaiman than proclaim one of the sibling of the five Bugis Princes, Opu Daeng Merewah or known as Kelana Jaya Putera to be the Yang Dipertuan Muda with the title of Sultan Alauddin Shah, as his representative to rule the Johore – Riau kingdom. Three years later Sultan Sulaiman send delegation to Trengganu to proclaim his uncle, Tun Zainal Abidin as Sultan of Trengganu with title Sultan Zainal Abidin.

The news and popularity of the five Bugis Princes that successfully helping Sultan Sulaiman to regain the Johore throne has spread around the region. Soon after that two of the Bugis prince namely, Opu Daing Menambon and Opu Daeng Kemasi have left Riau to Mempawah and Sambas in Kalimantan to be the ruler in that respective countries. In 1723 the Sultan of Kedah have wrote to seek help from Opu Daeng Parani, the eldest of the Bugis Princes to regain the throne of Kedah kingdom that have taken from him by his younger brother. With the of help of Opu Daeng Parani together with his brothers, the Yang Dipertuan Muda Daeng Merewah and Opu Daeng Celak, the Sultan of Kedah managed to regain back his throne.

The capability of Johore – Riau military strength have managed the kingdom to defend their territory from any attack of foreign county. After few years, the Johore – Riau kingdom which was base at Riau became prosperous and known as one of the popular business port in the region. In the tradition of the Johore – Riau kingdom, the Yang Dipertuan Muda held greater responsibilities from military and foreign affairs to domestic, economy, social and religious affair. After the death of the Yang Dipertuan Muda Daeng Merewah, Sultan Sulaiman proclaim the Yang Dipertuan Muda younger brother, Opu Daeng Celak to became the next Yang Dipertuan Muda and also held the title of Sultan Alauddin Shah. Yang Dipertuan Muda Daeng Celak(Daeng ruled Johore – Riau kingdom for seventeen years, his elder son, Raja Lumu became the first Sultan of Selangor in 1766 with the title of Sultan Salehuddin Shah, while his other son Raja Haji later became the following Yang Dipertuan Muda in the Johore – Riau kingdom in 1777.

2. Bugis in Modern Johor Sultanate

Daeng Rongge is the descendant of the 1st bugis prince to settle in Riau, Daeng Perani. He married a Malay princes. He was properly known as Tun Ibrahim , born in the island of Bulan , in the Riau archipelago in 1811. He was taken to Singapore at the age of 8 where he become familiarize with European custom. In 1825, his father Temenggong Abd al Rahman died and his eldest brother Abdullah became chief. Abdullah suffered periodic insanity and was never installed as Temenggong, Ibrahim acted as chief from 1833-1834. In 1841, Ibrahim was formally installed as Temenggong. His son Abu Bakar succeeded him as Temenggong when he died in 1862. Temenggong Abu Bakar later become 1st sultan of modern Johor sultanate, the sultanate continued until today.

Temenggong Tun Daeng Ibrahim or Daeng Rongge, a descendant of Sultan Abdul Jalil Riayat Shah IV by his non-royal son Tun Abbas.

3. Bugis in Selangor

Selangor was a landed territory GIVEN to the family of Daeng Chelak in late 1700. Given by the people residing in this area with the consent of the Johore, Perak and Kedah sultanate.

The Sultans of Selangor are descended from a Bugis dynasty that claim descent from the rulers of Luwu in the southern part of Celebes (today known as Sulawesi). Nobles from this bloodline were involved in the dispute over the Johor-Riau Sultanate in the early 18th century, eventually placing their full support in the cause of Sultan Abdul Jalil of the Bendahara dynasty against the claimant to the Malaccan lineage, Raja Kechil. For this reason, the Bendahara rulers of Johor-Riau established close relations with the Bugis nobles, providing them with titles and control over many areas within the empire, including Selangor. Daeng Chelak's prince, Raja Lumu arrived in Selangor and founded a new government at Kuala Selangor in 1766. He was installed by the Sultan of Perak as Sultan Salehuddin Shah and became the first Sultan of Selangor.

The 5 Daeng warriors who had contributed military power behind the throne of Johor Sultanate and powerful influence on the state of Kedah and Perak during the period 1722-1760

1. Daeng Kemasi - ruler of Sambas
2. Daeng Menambun -went to Kalimantan and become sultan of Mempawah and Matan sultanate.
3. Daeng Chelak(?-1745) - whose son formed the sovereign state of Selangor
4. Daeng Merewar(?-1728) - first Yam Tuan Muda (crown prince);
5. Daeng Perani(1697-1726)- personally involved in the politics of the Johor Sultanate in the early 18th century. Some said his name should be Daeng Paroni.

Daeng KEMASI ibni Daeng Rilaga

Sultan Umar Akamuddin 1 did write a letter requested Daeng Opu Manambunm,Opu Daeng Perani,Opu Daeng Macelak,Opu Daeng Marewa and Opu Daeng Kemasi to visit the Sambas sultanate. But only Opu daeng Daeng Manambun and Opu Daeng Kemasi come to Sambas. When they arrive at Sambas,
Sultan Umar Akamuddin 1 bin Muhammad Tajuddin (1708-1732) announced his desire to match his sister Raden Tengah with Opu Daeng Kemasi. Opu daeng Kemasi was given a title as Pangeran Mangkubumi. Some said Daeng Kemasi was the ruler of Sambas, but his name was not in the list,may be he had changed his name....

Note: Radin Maliau was the third Sultan, Sultan Omar Aqamaddin I. He continued with his predecessors’ work to spread Islam. He was known as Sultan Adil (the Just Sultan). He died in 1732.

Daeng Menambun ibni Daeng Rilaga(1737-1761)

Daeng Menambun become Sultan Mempawah dan Matan.Mempawah is a coastal state just north of Kapuas outlet. Historical state located in Kalimantan Barat (Western Borneo) north of Pontianak. Said to have been established in 1340. Under tutelage of the Dutch East Indies; in 1945/1949 absorbed by the Republic of Indonesia. The territory of the former Sultanate of Mempawah presently is divided among Kabupaten Pontianak (the west) and Kabupaten Landak (the east).
Daeng Menambun married with Putri Kesumba, the daughter of Sultan Muhammad Zainuddin,of Mempawah sultanate. Another Bugis, Daeng Pamase married into rayal house of Sambas.


1837 Matan state founded.

Rulers (title Panembahan)
1837 - 1845 Anom Kusuma Negara
1845 - 1908 Muhammad Cabaran
1908 - 19.. Gusti Mas Saunan


Ruler (title Panembahan)
1795 - 1822 Anom Kusuma Negara
(from 1808, Nata Kusuma)
1822 Muhammad Zainul Abidin Nata Kusuma
Rulers (title Panembahan)
1822 - 1826 Muhammad Zainul Abidin Nata Kusuma
1826 - 1828 Vacant
1828 - 1853 Umar Kamaruddin Nata Kerama
1853 - 1854 Mukmin Jaya Kusuma bin Umar
Kamaruddin Nata Kerama
1854 - 1860 Mahmud Akamaddin bin Umar
Kamaruddin Nata Kerama
1860 - 1863 Usman Shafiuddin Nata Jaya Kusuma
bin Mukmin Jaya Kusuma
1863 - 1892 Ibrahim Muhammad Shafiuddin bin
Mahmud Akamaddin
1892 - 1904? Muhammad Taufik Akamaddin
19.. - 12 Aug 2002 Jimmy Mochamad Ibrahim bin Taufik
Akamaddin (b. 1932 - d. 2005)
2002 - Mardan Adijaya Kesuma Ibrahim

Opu Daeng Manambon Grave(Makam Opu Daeng Menambun)

The founder of Mempawah Empire Grave is located to hill, Suap village, Mempawah Hilir district, Kabupaten Pontianak - Kalimantan Barat. There is also Habib Husein Grave (the first Islam spreader in Mempawah), which located in Sejegi village, Mempawah Hilir district.

Daeng Parani/Daeng Paroni

Daeng Parani was the eldest among five sons of Daing Rilaka and Upu Tenribong; this four other brothers being Daeng Menambun, Daeng Marewah, Daeng Chelak and Daeng Kemasi. As a youth, Daing Parani was said to have hooked up with a concubine of the Raja of Bone, during which he killed a Macassar prince and hence forcing his entire family to resettle in Riau.

Daeng Parani agreed to assist a Minangkabau prince, Raja Kechil, in overthrowing Sultan Abdul Jalil IV, the Bendahara (viceroy) who had taken power after the death of Sultan Mahmud Shah II without an official heir. Kechil claimed to be Mahmud's posthumous son. In 1717, however, Kechil attacked Riau without Daeng Parani, and claimed the throne. Abdul Jalil IV's son, Sulaiman Badrul Alam Shah, then sought the help of Daeng Parani and his Bugis warriors. They joined with Sulaiman and defeated Kechil in 1722. Sulaiman installed Daeng Parani's brother, Daeng Merewah, as Yam Tuan Muda (crown prince); under this arrangement, the Bugis were the actual power behind the throne of Johor.

Daeng Parani invaded Kedah with the combined force from Riau and Selangor, he was involved with the civil war of Kedah, supporting the ruler. The rival seek the help of Raja Kechil from Siak, who he had fight in Johor. He was killed about 1726 in Kedah, but the Bugis won the war.
Perani also married into the Kedah royal house. He died in Pinang Tunggal in 1724 while participating in a civil war between 2 claimants to the throne of Kedah, Johor’s vassal.
Two years ago, Kedahans of Kampung (Village) Ekor Lubuk in Sidam Kiri, Alor Star, found his grave in their midst.

His descendants through Tun Abdul Jamal (a maternal grandson of Daeng Parani), son of Bendahara Tun Abbas, gradually became the rulers of Johor during the 19th century. Daing Parani married Tengku Tengah, a daughter of Sultan Abdul Jalil IV. Another parternal descendant was Daeng Kamboja.

Following Raja Lumu, two other Bugis Chiefs settled in the Selangor area: Raja Tua in Klang and Daeng Kemboja in Linggi, south of Lukut. Daeng Kemboja,the son of Daeng Parani later succeed his uncle Daeng Chelak as 3rd Yam Tuan Muda of Riau. Daeng Kemboja, with his base at Linggi, invaded Malacca in 1756, but 1757 help arrived from Batavia , Bugis was forced to give up the siege. Dutch built a fort on the Linggi River and named it Philippe(today's Kota Linggi) after the daughter of Dutch Governor of Batavia, Jacob Mussel.

Daeng KAMBODJA bin Daeng Parani 1745/1777, born 1697, married 1stly, Raja Fatimah binti Daeng Merewah , married 2ndly, Daeng Uteh, married 3rdly, "Perempuan dari Riau", and had issue. He died 30th June 1777.

Daeng Chelak(?-1745)

Daeng Chelak(?-1745) was the Yang Dipertuan Muda Riau(II), his full name was Daeng CHELAK ibni Daeng Rilaga.

He was the father of Raja Lumu. Raja Lumu (Sultan Sallehuddin Shah ibni Almarhum Daeng Chelak; 1705-1778) was the first Sultan of Selangor. The bloodline of Daeng Chelak however was terminated after the 3rd Sultan. Raja Lumu originally met with opposition from the Sultans of Perak and Johor, as well as from the Dutch, but eventually managed to consolidate his position as sovereign. By 1770, his legitimacy was strengthened by marriage to the niece of the Sultan of Perak.

His another son was Raja HAJI bin al-Marhum Daeng Cellak, with the title Tok Klana, famous warrior prince,who was fear by Dutch. He was the 4th Yam Tuan Muda after Daeng Kemboja died in 1777 while fighting the Dutch in the battle. Raja Haji was in Kalimantan, he came back and become the next Yam Tuan Muda. Raja Haji died in 1784 while fighting Dutch in Malacca(Note: some record show Raja HAJI Fasibillah bin Daeng Cellak was the 4th Yam Tuan Muda, are they the same one? or which is the correct one?)

He was the grandfather to Bugi scholar, Raja Ali Haji bin Raja Haji Ahmad (1808–1872) was a 19th-century Buginese–Malay historian, poet and scholar, who author the famous historical book, Tuhfat al-Nafis (The Precious Gift). He was the son of Raja Ahmad, who was titled Engku Haji Tua after accomplishing the pilgrimage to Mecca. He was the grandson of Raja Ali Haji Fisabilillah (the brother of Raja Lumu, the first Sultan of Selangor).

Raja Haji Ali bin Raja Ahmad, born 1809, married (a), Raja Safiah binti al-Marhum Raja Ja'afar, married (b), Daeng Chahaya binti Daeng Manaroh, married (c), Che' Sulong, married (d), Tengku Nai binti Tun Sabtir, and had issue. He died 1872.

Following Raja Lumu, two other Bugis Chiefs settled in the Selangor area: Raja Tua in Klang and Daeng Kemboja in Linggi, south of Lukut. Daeng Kemboja,the son of Daeng Parani later succeed his uncle Daeng Chelak as 3rd Yam Tuan Muda of Riau.

# Upu Daeng CELLAK bin Daeng Rilaga 1728/1745, married (amongst others) (a), 1712, Tengku Mandak binti al-Marhum Sultan Abdul Djalil Shah Riayat Shah of Johore, married (b), Daeng Maasik binti Arong Palai, and had issue. He died 1745.

* Raja HAJI bin al-Marhum Daeng Cellak (by Daeng Maasik) (qv)
* HH Sultan SALEHUDDIN SHAH ibni al-Marhum Daeng Cellak [Raja Lumu] (by Daeng Maasik), 1st Sultan of Selangor.
* Tengku Putih binti al-Marhum Daeng Cellak (by Tengku Mandak), married HH Sultan ABDUL DJALIL V MUAZZAM SHAH ibni al-Marhum Sultan Sulaiman Badrul Alam Shah of Johore, and had issue.
* Tengku Hitam binti al-Marhum Daeng Cellak (by Tengku Mandak), married Syed Husain bin Syed Sheikh Yahya, and had issue.
* Raja Bulang binti al-Marhum Daeng Cellak, married 1739, Sultan MANSUR SHAH I of Terengganu, and had issue.
* Raja Halimah binti al-Marhum Daeng Cellak [Tengku Chik] (by Daeng Maasik), married the Raja of Jambi.
* Raja Hafsah Aminah binti al-Marhum Daeng Cellak, married Daeng Lakani [Arung Lenga], a Bugis Prince, and had issue.
o Raja Sulaiman bin Daeng Lakani [Engku Dalam], married Raja Buntit binti al-Marhum Raja Haji

Daeng Merewah

Daeng Merewah, the first Yam Tuan Muda invaded Perak in 1728, but was not successful. He was killed /died in 1728. His successor Daeng Chelak , the 2nd Yam Tuan Muda of Riau, attacked again in 1743, and captured Perak.

Daeng MEREWAH bin Daeng Rilaga(1721/1728), married Encik Chik Ayu binti Daeng Abdul Jamal of Riau-Johore, and had issue. He died 7th August 1728.

* Raja Fatimah binti Daeng Merewah, married Daeng KAMBODJA bin al-Marhum Daeng Parani (see below)
* Upu Lamampak Kelana Cik Unok binti Daeng Merewah, married Raja Lumu bin Daeng Cellak (later HH Sultan SALEHUDDIN SHAH ibni al-Marhum Daeng Cellak, 1st Sultan of Selangor).
* Raja Sa'ad bin Daeng Merewah, married and had issue.
o Raja Ismail bin Raja Sa'ad, married Raja Aishah binti Daeng Kambodja (see below).
o Raja Tipah binti Raja Sa'ad
It was reported in the forum, families can be found in Singapore and Malacca.

List of Sultans of Selangor

1. Sultan Salahuddin Shah (Raja Lumu Ibni Daeng Chelak; 1745-1778)
2. Sultan Ibrahim Shah (Raja Ibrahim; 1778-1826)
3. Sultan Muhammad Shah (Raja Muhammad; 1826-1857)
4. Sultan Sir Abdul Samad (Raja Abdul Samad; 1857-1896)
5. Sultan Sir Alaeddin Sulaiman Shah (Tengku Sulaiman Shah; 1896-1937)
6. Sultan Sir Hisamuddin Alam Shah Al-Haj (Tengku Alam Shah; 1937-1942, 1945-1960)
7. Sultan Musa Ghiatuddin Riayat Shah (Tengku Musaeddin; during Japanese occupation 1942-1945)
8. Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah Al-Haj (Tengku Abdul Aziz Shah; 1960-2001)
9. Sultan Sharafuddin Idris Shah Al-Haj (Tengku Idris Shah; 2001-current)

4. Bugis in Pahang

After the Srivijaya empire collapsed, around the 1000, Pahang was claimed first by Siam, and then by Sultanate of Malacca. Pahang was fought over by the Portuguese, the Dutch, Johor, and Aceh for most of the 16th century. During this time, its population was mostly killed or enslaved, its rulers murdered and its economy ruined. After the decline of Aceh in the mid-17th century, Pahang came under the rule of Johor. However, Sultans of Pahang, descended from the Malacca and the Bendahara Johor royal dynasties, have ruled the state almost continuously from 1470, and gradually recovered a great degree of autonomy.

Following the elevation Sultan Abdul Jalil IV, the bendahara was granted Pahang as their personal fief. From thereon afterwards the Bendahara of Johor is known as the Bendahara in Pahang. They are also known as "Raja Bendahara" for their status as the rulers of the vassal state of Pahang. Pahang was the vassal of Johore Sultanate.Tun Abdul Majid was the first Raja Bendahara in Pahang(1777-1802).

From 1858 to 1863, Pahang was fought over in a civil war between the two sons of the reigning Bendahara Tun Ali(1806-1847), Tun Mutahir and Wan Ahmad. Tun Mutahir was the last Raja Bendahara. The war ended when Wan Ahmad proclaimed as the new sultan in 1887, but his role from that point onward was largely ceremonial, as the British forced him to sign a treaty bringing the country under control of a British Resident.

Wan Ahmad was the son of Tun Ali, descendant of Tun Abbas, Bendahara Seri Maharaja, Bendahara of Johore and Pahang,who was the non-royal son of Sultan Abdul Jalil Riayat Shah IV(source: wikipedia,

Tun Razak(2nd Prime Minister of Malaysia 1970-1976), Dato Sri Najib Razak(6th Prime Minister of Malaysia) are descendant of Bugis in Pahang. They are father and son.

5. Bugis in Kedah

6. Bugis in Trengganu

Sultan Zainal Abidin I, the 5th and youngest son of Bendahara Tun Habib

7. Bugis in Singapore

The Bugis came from the Celebes Islands in Indonesia. They were well known for a long time as maritime traders. In the mid-seventeenth century, the Bugis were spreading out from Celebes to set up trading centres throughout the region. Often they had to sail to distant lands and fight indigenous tribes. They rarely lost and acquired a reputation as fierce warriors.

The Dutch control of the Dutch East Indies and their blockades cut off the Bugis from their traditional spice trade routes from Celebes to Java. This forced them to migrate to other areas to continue trading. Their migration to what is today Malaysia, Singapore and Riau began around the 18th century or even earlier. At the beginning of the 19th century, the number of Bugis traders in the region increased. Their influence in Riau was strong. Among the Bugis traders were also members of the nobility like Engku Karaeng Talibak who married the daughter of Raja Ali Haji. According to Raja Ali Haji in his work, Tuhfat al-Nafis, the presence of Karaeng Talibak brought more Bugis traders to Riau.

The establishment of a free port in Singapore allowed the Bugis to expand their network in the archipelago. Sailing from Sumatra to north Australia, the Bugis ships brought cargoes of cotton cloth, gold dust, birds-of-paradise feathers, pepper, trepang (sea slugs), sandalwood, tortoiseshell, coffee and rice to Singapore. Most of these goods were very much in demand by the Chinese merchants in Singapore. The Bugis also traded in slaves.

James Cameron gave a description in 1865 of the various ships that would visit Singapore’s harbour. According to him, each year during October and November, the Bugis ships would come from Bali and the Celebes.

By the 1830s, the Bugis had established themselves in Singapore and formed the majority of the pioneer communities in the Kampung Gelam area. By 1881, the Census of Population reported 2,053 Bugis in Singapore. The Bugis gradually formed kampongs and settlements in places like Kampung Bugis (around the Kallang River), Kampung Soopoo, Jalan Pelatok and Jalan Pergam.

(source; wikipedia)

Current migration of Bugis to Sabah
8. Bugis in Sabah(Modern Malaysia)

Bugis of Sabah refers the majority of Indonesian Citizens in Sabah. There are a lot of Bugis tribe residing in Sabah, mainly on the east coast and particularly around the districts of Tawau, Semporna, Kunak and Lahad Datu. Today, there are more than hundred thousands of Indonesian Citizens in Sabah especially Tawau are Bugises and the rest of are Timors and Torajas. Some of them are now become the Malaysian citizen although they have a very good relationship with their relatives in Indonesia.

Since 1970, several groups of Indonesian Bugises are invited to Tawau in Sabah. They are Indonesian Contract Workers for British Rubber and Abaka ( BAL ) Plantation at Table Estates, Imam Estate, Tiger Estate, Burut Estate and Merotai Estate. At that time, all of them decided to work in Sabah temporarily. But soon, they changed their plan and keep staying in Malaysia until they become an Malaysian Citizen. Lived with Tawau Malay ( natives ) people, they learn to speak Tawau Malay language and slang(loghat). This is the way how they try to be part of society of Malay People in Tawau. This Indonesian's Bugises community lived in plantation estates until now and their number is not a big enough.

But the big history of the existence of Indonesian Bugises in Sabah was after 1980. It was the time when Sabah was become developing country. Because of the economic problem in South Sulawesi, there are a lot of Bugises Indonesia, came from Sulawesi to find jobs in Sabah especially at Tawau as construction workers, plantation workers, transportation workers and market saler. And now there are more than 500,000 of them around Sabah and their numbers is cannot be controlled. However, the biggest problem are there was also a very large number of non-registered and illegal Bugises immigrants comes from South Sulawesi Indonesia.

For now, the huge number of the legal and illegal Bugises Indonesian immigrants in Sabah especially Tawau is the very main problem that cannot be settled. Some of them are tried to get the citizenship with any way or any cost. They afford to use the wrong information or false document for apply the citizenship of Malaysia or Mycard. Many of these immigrants are caught by the police officers for this activities. In case, many Indonesian people have arrested because of having not original My Card or Passport's document.

The expansion of the Bugis influence to Sabah began in the 20th century when members of the tribe migrated from Sulawesi to Java, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia and Borneo. Some Bugises men left their origin's place forever, came to Tawau and make a new family by married with the natives people such as Suluk girl or Tidong girl. For example, Daing Mapata married the Tidong girl and Daing Kerahu married the Suluk girl. They live with their new family in Tawau. Live with Suluk or Tidong culture, they are become a Tawau Malay people. Their son, Ahmad ( Linat ) Mapata and Zainal Kerahu assumed that they are Tidong or Suluk man according to their family ( mother's family or grandfather's family ) in Tawau. They became two of many leader for all Malay people ( including Local Malaysian Suluk, Tidung, Arab, Jawa, Iban, Cocos etc ) in Tawau.

However, only in 1980 did some move to Tawau, where they settled at Ranggu, which was founded by the chief village K.K. Salim's grandmother of Sungai Imam village, Bombalai. The settlers were traders, and later others came as workers on plantations established by the British. Later, Petta Senong, who was a member of the Bone royalty, resided in the same village. He was sent by the Sulu government to stop the piracy around the Sulu Sea. The Bugis continued to explore new places to develop Tawau town; among the Bugis settlers were Puang Ado, Wak Neke (Jawa), Wak Gempe (Jawa) and Haji Osman (Suluk).

(source: wikipedia)

Setelah Bugis berjaya menawan Riau, Raja Sulaiman kemudiannya pulang ke Pahang, manakala raja Bugis pula pergi ke Selangor untuk mengumpulkan bala tentera dan senjata untuk terus menyerang Raja Kechil. Semasa peninggalan tersebut, Raja Kechil telah menawan semula Riau semasa raja Bugis masih berada di Selangor.

Setelah mendapat tahu Riau telah ditawan oleh Raja Kechil, Bugis terus kembali dengan 30 buah kapal perang untuk menebus semula Riau, semasa dalam perjalanan menuju ke Riau, mereka telah menawan Linggi (sebuah daerah di Negeri Sembilan) yang dikuasai oleh Raja Kechil. Setelah Raja Kechil mendapat tahu akan penawanan itu, baginda telah datang ke Linggi untuk menyerang balas.

Pehak Bugis telah berpecah dimana 20 buah dari kapal perangnya meneruskan perjalanan menuju ke Riau dan diketuai oleh 3 orang dari mereka. Raja Sulaiman telah datang dari Pahang dan turut serta memberi bantuan untuk menawan semula Riau. Dalam peperangan ini mereka telah berjaya menawan kembali Riau dimana kemudiannya Raja Sulaiman dan Bugis telah mendirikan kerajaan bersama.

Setelah mengetahui penawanan Riau tersebut, Raja Kechil kembali ke Siak kerana baginda juga telah gagal menawan semula Linggi dari tangan Bugis. Hingga kini Linggi telah didiami turun-temurun oleh keturunan Bugis dan bukan daerah Minangkabau.

Pada tahun 1729, Bugis sekali lagi menyerang Raja Kechil di Siak dimasa Raja Kechil ingin memindahkan alat kebesaran DiRaja Johor (Sebuah Meriam) ke Siak. Setelah mengambil semula kebesaran DiRaja tersebut, Raja Sulaiman kemudiannya ditabalkan sebagai Sultan Johor dengan membawa gelaran Sultan Sulaiman Badrul Alam Shah yang memerintah Johor, Pahang, Riau, and Linggi.

Sultan Sulaiman telah melantik Daeng Marewah sebagai Yamtuan Muda Riau. Kemudian adik perempuannya Tengku Tengah pula dikahwinkan dengan Daeng Parani yang mana telah mangkat di Kedah semasa menyerang Raja Kechil disana. Seorang lagi adik Sultan Sulaiman Tengku Mandak dikahwinkan dengan Daeng Chelak(1722-1760) yang dilantik sebagai Yamtuan Muda II Riau 1730an. Kemudian anak Daeng Parani, Daeng Kemboja dilantik menjadi Yamtuan Muda III Riau (yang juga memerintah Linggi di Negeri Sembilan).

Anak Daeng Chelak, Raja Haji dilantik sebagai Yamtuan Muda IV Riau dimana baginda telah hampir dapat menawan Melaka dari tangan Belanda dalam tahun 1784 tetapi akhirnya baginda mangkat setelah ditembak dengan peluru Lela oleh Belanda di Telok Ketapang, Melaka. Baginda telah dikenali sebagai Al-Marhum Telok Ketapang.

Dalam tahun 1730an, seorang Bugis bernama Daeng Mateko yang berbaik dengan Raja Siak mengacau ketenteraman Selangor.

Ini menjadikan Daeng Chelak datang ke Kuala Selangor dengan angkatan perang dari Riau. Daeng Mateko dapat dikalahkan kemudiannya beliau lari ke Siak. Dari semenjak itulah daeng Chelak sentiasa berulang-alik dari Riau ke Kuala Selangor. Lalu berkahwin dengan Daeng Masik Arang Pala kemudian dibawa ke Riau.

Ketika Daeng Chelak berada di Kuala Selangor penduduk Kuala Selangor memohon kepada beliau supaya terus menetap di situ sahaja. Walau bagaimana pun Daeng Chelak telah menamakan salah seorang daripada puteranya iaitu Raja Lumu datang ke Kuala Selangor. Waktu inilah datang rombongan anak buahnya dari Riau memanggil Daeng Chelak pulang ke Riau dan mangkat dalam tahun 1745.

Daeng CHELAK ibni Daeng Rilaga

DIED : 1745
FATHER : Upu Tendriburang Daeng RILAGA
PARTNER : Tengku Mandak binti al-Marhum Sultan Abdul Djalil Riayat Shah

1. HH Sultan SALEHUDDIN Shah ibni al-Marhum Daeng Cellak [ - 1785]
2. Tengku Putih binti al-Marhum Daeng Cellak
3. Tengku Hitam binti al-Marhum Daeng Cellak
4. Raja HAJI ibni al-Marhum Daeng Cellak [ - 1784]
5. Tengku Bulang binti al-Marhum Daeng Cellak

Raja Ahmad al Linggi mempunyai salasilah Bugis dari perkahwinan antara anak perempuan Daeng Chelak iaitu Tengku Putih dengan Raja Johor Riau yang ketiga iaitu Sultan Abd Jalil ke V yang merupakan ayahanda kepada Raja Ahmad al Linggi.

Manakala isteri kepada Daeng Chelak iaitu Tengku Mandak memang merupakan seorang puteri dari kesultanan Johor Riau iaitu anak kepada Sultan Abd Jalil Riayat Shah.(Paduka Sri Sultan ‘Abdu’l Jalil IV Ri’ayat Shah bin Dato Bendahara Tun Abdul Majid (Tahun 1699 – 1721))

Perkahwinan antara ayahanda Raja Ahmad iaitu Sultan Abdul Jalil ke V dengan Tengku Puteh Daeng Chelak ini merupakan satu pertautan kembali hubungkait mereka dengan keturunan Bendahara Tun Abdul Majid. I ni kerana Tengku Puteh Daeng Chelak merupakan cucu kepada Sultan Abd Jalil IV Riayat Shah bin Tun Habib Abdul Majid.

Percaturan yang menyaksikan bahwa Raja Ahmad al Linggi mempunyai darah keturunan bangsawan Bugis, Melayu dan Arab.

Raja Ahmad turut mempunyai salasilah dari keturunan Raja Bugis iaitu dari DAENG CHELAK melalui anaknya yang menjadi Yam Tuan Muda Riau ke II iaitu Raja Haji yang mati syahid melawan Belanda dan digelar Marhum Syahid Ketapang.

(draft - to be updated/translated......)

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