Friday, February 12, 2010

Pattani Kingdom(ปัตตานี, 北大年)

Patani (Pattani) or Sultanate of Pattani is known to have been part of the ancient Srivijayan kingdom. It then covered approximately the area of the modern Thai provinces of Pattani, Yala, Narathiwat and much of the northern part of modern Malaysia. The King of Patani is believed to have been converted to Islam some time during the 11th century, the 6-7th century Hindu state of Pan Pan may or may not be related.

It is not known precisely when Patani was first founded, but evidence points to sometime in the fourteenth century. Local stories tell of a fisherman named Pak- tani who was sent by a king from the interior to survey the coast to find a place for an appropriate settlement. After he established a successful fishing outpost, other people moved to join him. The town soon grew into a prosperous trading center that continued to bear his name. The authors of the Hikayat Patani chronicle mentioned this story as untrue when they told their own tale of the king founding the city, but this latter story seems an attempt to undermine an already established tradition and gain more glory for its early rulers.

Like many of the small kingdoms in Southeast Asian history, Pattani broke away from an older ancient state. Most did not have their own written language, enjoyed only short periods of real independence and have long since disappeared.

The four southern provinces, collectively known as southern Thailand, are Patani, Narathiwat, Yala and Satun. These had their early origins under the rule of Langkasuka. The kingdom of Patani gradually replaced Langkasuka and the four provinces were incorporated into what is known as Patani Raya or Greater Patani. Tome Pires believed that the state of Patani was established as early as the 1390s. This is based on evidence of the relationship between the Siam kingdom and the Patani kingdom. One of the Thai kings of the period had married a daughter of one of the nobles of the Patani court. The fruit of this marriage was Tamagi who later became the ruler of Tumasik under Siam rule. Tamagi was later murdered by Parameswara, a Palembang prince who later became the founder of the Malay kingdom of Malacca. The news of the murder reached the King of Patani who immediately dispatched an armada to capture Parameswara. Parameswara., however, managed to escape through the Muar river and reached a place he subsequently called Malacca. Malacca was subsequently established in 1398 on the Malay Peninsula.

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Thus it is clear that Patani was already an established kingdom by the time Malacca was established. This fact is further corroborated by the Portuguese through the writings of one of its historians, Godinho de Eredia, in his book Declaracan de Mala e India Meridional written in 1613,:
“It is to be noted that the eastern coast of Ujontana was peopled and frequented before the other or western coast; thus the histories relate that Malayos inhabited Pattane and Pam before the foundation of Malacca. At that time the ruler of Pam governed Sycapura and the Monarch who resided in Pattane, the metropolis of the Malayos.”

The Islamization

Historians are inclined to date the coming of Islam to Patani to coincide with the coming of Islam to the whole of the Malay Archipelago i.e. at the end of the 13th century. This view is based upon the similar Islamic features of the gravestones of the King of Patani and Sultan al-Malik al-Saleh of the Pasai kingdom of northern Sumatera. This would mean that Patani had received Islam even before Malacca had been established.

Local historians put the date much earlier, as early as the 10th or the 11th century. This spread however did not occur at the level of the court, as the court only converted to Islam in 1457. Thus even though Patani received Islam much earlier than Malacca it did not become a Muslim empire due to the reluctance of the court to accept Islam at that early period.

This would mean that Patani had received Islam from missionaries from the old Malay kingdom of Langkasuka. Langkasuka in turn had received Islam from Campa which was another Muslim empire in the 11th and 12th century. The ruling families of the three kingdoms were close with intermarriage; however as regards faith, they were always separate with Patani not being a Muslim kingdom at that very early period.

The story of the conversion of the King of Patani is also recorded in the earliest record of the history of Patani, conveniently called “Tarikh al-Fatani”. The story begins with the illness of the King Paya Tunaqpa with no physician in the kingdom able to cure him. A Muslim preacher present in the town at the time decided to use the opportunity to help cure the king on condition that upon recovering, he would convert to Islam. The king agreed and upon recovering he converted to Islam and assumed the title of Sultan Ismail Syah Zillullah fi al-Alam. Thus began the reign of the Muslim kingdom of Patani in 1457.

Langkasuka 2nd century - 14th century

Langkasuka was a Hindu-Buddhist kingdom founded in the region as early as the second century. The historical record is sparse, but a Chinese Liang Dynasty record (c. 500 AD) refers to the kingdom of "Lang-ya-xiu" (Chinese: 狼牙脩) as being founded in the 1st century AD. As described in the Chinese chronicles, Langkasuka was thirty days' journey from east to west, and twenty from north to south, 24,000 li in distance from Guangzhou. Its capital was said to be surrounded by walls to form a city with double gates, towers and pavilions. The Buddhist monk Yi Jing mentioned encountering three Chinese monks who lived in Lang-chia-su.

The kingdom drew trade from Chinese, Indian, and local traders as a stopping place for ships bound for, or just arrived from, the Gulf of Thailand. Langkasuka reached its greatest economic success in the sixth and seventh centuries and afterward declined as a major trade center. Political circumstances suggest that by the eleventh century Chola invasion, Langkasuka was no longer a major port visited by merchants. However, much of the decline may be due to the silting up of its harbor, shown most poignantly today by the fact that the most substantial Langkasukan ruins rest approximately 15 kilometers from the sea.

The ancient Hindu-Malay empire of Langkasuka was centered in Pattani, today's southern Thailand, which encompasses of modern Malaysia states Kelantan, Terengganu and northern Kedah, as well as modern Thai provinces of Pattani (Patani in Malay), Yala (Jala), Narathiwat (Menara), Songkhla (Singgora) and Satun (Setul). Malay legends claim that Langkasuka was founded at Kedah, and later moved to Pattani.

The kingdom's designation in Chinese records changed over time: it was known as "Lang-ya-se-chia" during the Song dynasty (960-1279); "Long-ya-si-jiao" during the Yuan Dynasty (1279-1368); and "Lang-se-chia" during the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644), as evidenced by the Mao Kun map of Admiral Zheng He. The name "Langkasuka" was also mentioned in Malay and Javanese chronicles. Tamil sources name "Ilangasoka" as one of Rajendra Chola's conquests in his expedition against the Srivijaya empire. It was described as a kingdom that that was "undaunted in fierce battles".

In 515 AD King Bhagadatta first established relations with China, with further embassies sent in 523, 531 and 568. In the 12th century Langkasuka was a tributary to the Srivijaya empire, and around the 14th century it was replaced by the Pattani Kingdom.

Srivijaya(Hindu-Buddhist Empire)7th to 13th century

Srivijaya or Sriwijaya was an ancient Malay kingdom on the island of Sumatra, Southeast Asia which influenced much of the Southeast Asia. The earliest solid proof of its existence dates from the 7th century; a Chinese monk, I-Tsing, wrote that he visited Srivijaya in 671 for 6 months. The first inscription in which the name Srivijaya appears also dates from the 7th century, namely the Kedukan Bukit Inscription around Palembang in Sumatra, dated 683. The kingdom ceased to exist between 1200 and 1300 due to various factors, including the expansion of Majapahit.

Pattani became part of the Hindu-Buddhist Empire of Srivijaya, a maritime confederation based in Palembang. Srivijaya dominated trade in the South China Sea and exacted tolls on all traffic through the Straits of Malacca. Malay culture had substantial influence on the Khmer Empire, and the ancient city of Nakhon Pathom. Despite claims that the origins of the name Pattani means "this beach", it may been the same country known to the Chinese as Pan Pan. The kingdom adopted the name "Patani" under the rule of Sultan Ismail Shah. According to local folklore, he was finding a spot for the kingdom's new capital, and when he arrived to the place he liked best, he shouted "Pantai Ini!" which means in Malay, "This beach!" According to most accounts, this capital is thought to be today's modern Kru Se (Kampung Grisek).

Pan Pan?

Sukhothai(Siamese Kingdom)1238-1438-1583

In the 14th century, King Ramkhamhaeng the Great((c.1239 - 1317) of Sukhothai (also known as Pho Khun Ramkhamhaeng, Thai: พ่อขุนรามคำแหงมหาราช), occupied Nakhon Si Thammarat and its vassal states - including Pattani. Ramkhamhaeng’s government characterized the governance of Sukhothai kingdom – the patrocracy – in which the king is considered “father” and people “children”. He also encouraged the free trade. In 1378, the armies from Ayutthaya kingdom invaded and put Sukhothai under her tributary.

Prince Ramesuan or Somdet Phra Ramesuan Boromma Trailokanat Bopit สมเด็จพระราเมศวรบรมไตรโลกนาถบพิตร(1431-1488) was born in 1431 to King Borommaracha Thirat II or Chao Sam Phraya and his queen from the Kingdom of Sukhothai. He became the Uparaja (lit. Vice-king of crown prince) in 1438. When his cousin, Maha Dhammaracha IV (พระมหาธรรมราชาที่ 4) or Borommapan(บรมปาล)of Sukhothai who ruled from 1419 to 1438, died in 1438, Ramesuan was then technically the king of Sukhothai – though he was too young to be crowned. It was also the end of Phra Ruang Dynasty (1238-1368-1438). Upon reaching majority in 1446(?), Borommaracha II sent Ramesuan to Pitsanulok to assume the Sukhothai throne. Boormmaracha II died in 1448, Prince Ramesuan was then crowned as the king of Ayutthaya – thus a personal union between Sukhothai and Ayutthaya. The ruler of Ayutthaya also ruler of Sukhothai, he ruled from 1448-1488.

(Note: He was the ruler of Sukhothai from 1438 to 1488, ruler of Ayutthaya from 1448-1488, ruler of both from 1448-1488). In between 1448-1474, King Ramesuan's relative, a Sukhothai royalty and claimed to be the rightful king of Sukhothai. He allied with Lanna King, Tilokaraj and took Sukhothai. In 1474, King Ramesuan finally expelled the Lanna out of his kingdom,and rule Sokhothai again until 1488)

Ayutthaya(Siamese kingdom)1351-1767

The Thais conquered the isthmus during the thirteenth century. Their kingdom was a single unified state with Ayutthaya as a capital and many smaller vassal states under its control. Thus, they used a self-governing system whereby the vassal states and tributary provinces owed allegiance to the king of Ayutthaya, but otherwise ran their own affairs.

A sheikh from Kampong Pasai (presumeably a small community of traders from Pasai who lived on the outskirts of Patani) named Sa'id or Shafi'uddin, in various accounts, healed the king of a rare skin disease and after much negotiation (and recurrence of the disease), the king agreed to convert to Islam, adopting the name Sultan Ismail Shah. Afterward, all of the sultan's officials also converted. There is fragmentary evidence, however, that some local people had begun to convert prior to the king's conversion. First of all, the existence of a diasporic Pasai community near Patani shows that local people had regular, close contact with Muslims. But there are also travel reports, such as that of Ibn Battuta, and early Portuguese accounts that claimed Patani had an established Muslim community even prior to Melaka (which officially converted in 1413), which would suggest that non-courtiers, probably merchants who made contact with other emerging Muslims centers of the time, were the first to convert in the region.

During much of the fifteenth century Ayutthaya's energies were directed toward the Malay Peninsula, especially the trading port of Malacca, which fell under the rule of the Malacca Sultanate. Ayutthaya's sovereignty extended over Malacca and the Malay states south of Tambralinga (Nakorn Sri Thammarat). Ayutthaya helped to develop and stabilize the region, opening the way for the lucrative trade on the isthmus. This attracted Chinese merchants seeking specialty goods for the markets of China.

The sixteenth century witnessed the rise of Burma, which under an aggressive dynasty had overrun Chiang Mai and Laos and then made war on Ayutthaya. In 1569 Burmese forces, joined by Siamese rebels, captured and looted the city of Ayutthaya, carrying the royal family into captivity in Burma. Dhammaraja (reigned 1569-90), a Siam provincial governor who had aided the Burmese, was installed as vassal king at Ayutthaya. Thai independence was later restored by his son, King Naresuan the Great (reigned 1590-1605), who rebelled against the Burmese and by 1600 had driven them from the country.

During the massive Burmese attack from the north against the ancient Siamese kingdom of Ayutthaya, Pattani's Sultan Muzaffar Shah took this advantage and launched an attack on Ayutthaya in 1563. He however mysteriously died during battle.

Determined to prevent another act of treason like his father's, King Naresuan set about unifying the country's administration directly under the royal court at Ayutthaya. He ended the practice of nominating royal princes to govern Ayutthaya's provinces, assigning instead court officials who were expected to execute the policies handed down by the king. Thereafter, the royal princes were confined to the capital. Their power struggles continued, but were at court under the king's watchful eye. Even with King Naresuan's reforms, the power of the royal government over the next 150 years should not be overestimated. With the fall of Ayutthaya to the Burmese in 1569, Pattani had become virtually independent.

The coming of the Europeans

The coming of the Europeans, beginning with the Portuguese who had established themselves in Malacca in 1511, was used by the ruler of Pattani to gain alliance against the might of Siam. In 1517, the Portuguese, led by Quarte Coelho, came to Pattani to seek an audience with Sultan Ismail Syah. The result of such negotiations was trading rights and privileges for the Portuguese in exchange for Portuguese protection of Pattani from Siam

The port of Pattani at that time was one of the busiest and wealthiest ports in the region with trade from China, Japan, Portugal and later on the British, apart from the local traders. The materials on trade were gold, cotton, silk, spices, porcelain and pottery.

Pattani Golden Age(1584-1649/1688)

Pattani's golden age was during the reign of its four successive queens from 1584, known as Raja Hijau 1584-1616(The Green Queen), Raja Biru 1616-1624(The Blue Queen), Raja Ungu 1624-1635(The Purple Queen) and Raja Kuning 1635-1686 (The Yellow Queen), where the kingdom's economic and military strength was greatly increased and managed to fight off at least four Siamese invasions with the help of the eastern Malay kingdom of Pahang and the southern Malay Sultanate of Johore.

Chinese merchants, beginning with Cheng Ho in the period 1406-1433, played a major role in the rise of Patani as a regional trade center. They were soon joined by other groups such as the Portuguese in 1516, Japanese in 1592, Dutch in 1602, English in 1612, and of course a great number of Malay and Siamese merchants who worked throughout the area. The United East India Company and the English East India Company(EIC) established warehouses in Patani in 1603 and 1612, respectively, and carried out intense trading there. Patani was particularly viewed by European traders as a way of accessing the Chinese market.

After 1620, the Dutch and English both closed their warehouses, but a prosperous trade continued, mainly with the Chinese, Japanese, and Portuguese, for much of the rest of the century. Following the 1688 invasion by Ayudhya, political disorder ensued for the following half-century during which time local rulers were unable to quell the lawlessness that consumed the region. Most foreign merchants abandoned their trade in Patani at that time.

In 1630 the Pattani kingdom revolted against the King of Siam, Prasat Thong. In 1630 Patani was ruled by a strong headed princess, Raja Ungu(Purple Queen), who was the former wife of the King of Pahang, a state further south in the Malay Peninsula. She came to the throne rejecting the title Phra Nang Chao-Yang or Raja Nang Cayam given by the King of Siam. Instead she assumed the title Paduka Syah Alam as an act of defiance against King Prasat Thong.

Her ascension to the throne coincided with the coup at the Siam court of Ayuthia by Prasat Thong(สมเด็จพระเจ้าปราสาททอง)who later became 1st king of Prasat Thong dynasty(the 4th Dynasty of Ayutthaya kingdom, who ruled form 1629-1656. Raja Ungu rejected Prasat Thong's coronation and declared Patani to be independent from Siam and refused to send the Bunga Emas(Gold flower) as a token of subservience to Siam. The newly crowned king was upset with the turn of events and eventually declared war on Patani on the pretext that Patani had made an unlawful alliance with the Portuguese to destroy Siam.

In 1631 Raja Ungu despatched her Pattani army to Ligor to liberate it from Siam control. This infuriated the King of Siam even more. In the aftermath of the battle, the Patani army captured two ships belonging to Siam including two Dutch traders. Ligor was recaptured by Siamese forces. However, the two Dutch traders were still missing. This incident brought the Dutch, who were hitherto neutral observers, into the war on the side of Siam.

Following an agreement with the Dutch that they would come at the appointed time of the battle against Pattani, the Siam army began its assault on Pattani in May 1634. The 60,000 strong Siam army could not withstand the assault on their own against the combined forces of Pattani and the Portuguese. As the Dutch was nowhere to be seen, the Siamese army conceded defeat and returned to Ayuthia where the general of the army was later beheaded on the orders of the king. The Dutch finally arrived in June after the battle had long been lost to Pattani. The king was furious and ordered that the whole of the Dutch fleet be confined to their quarters. It was only after constant persuasion that they were released with the excuse that they had engaged and destroyed 6 Pattani ships as the reason for their delay.

Two years later in 1636, the Siamese army managed to reorganize itself for another assault on Pattani. This however was never undertaken due to two main factors. The Dutch were ordered by the head of the VOC not to be involved in local feuds. The second factor was the negotiation instigated by the Sultan of Kedah, Sultan Rijalluddin Muhammed Syah (1619-1652). The Sultan became the middle man between Siam and Pattani, thus resolving the issue without any bloodshed. The agreement stated that Siam would not attack Patani and Pattani in turn would send Bunga Emas as a symbol of friendship. The Sultanah disagreed with the Bunga Emas and instead suggested that Pattani send an ambassador to Siam. The representative of the king of Siam, Phraya Phrakhlang, without the backing of the Dutch hesitatingly agreed. Thus the revolt ended with the partial victory of the kingdom of Pattani under the rule of one of its most famous Sultanahs, Sultanah Paduka Syah Alam.

The death of the Sultanah ended the hostility towards Siamese rule. Her daughter Raja Kuning(Yellow Queen)regained the Siam title of Phra Nang Chao-Yang or Raja Nang Cayam. Another bid for total freedom came with the occupation of Ayuthia by the Burmese in 1767.

In the mid-17th century, however, Ratu Kuning (the Yellow Queen), believed to be the last of the four successive rulers of Pattani, died. Pattani went through decades of political chaos and conflict, suffering a gradual decline.

Around 1688-90, the rule of Pattani shifted to the Kelantan royal line, and this scenario was reversed around 1730 when the Pattani royal line came to rule Kelantan.

Raja Bakal, (1688-1690 or 1651-1670), after a brief invasion of Patani by his father in 1649, Raja Sakti I of Kelantan, he was given the throne in Patani.

The last sultan of Pattani, Sultan Abdul Kadir Kamaruddin's (1899-1902) son Tengku Seri Akar was married to the daughter of Sultan Muhamad IV of Kelantan. Through the 16th century to the 19th century we can trace many Pattani royal sons and daughters married into the ruling families of Kelantan, Perlis, Trengganu, Pahang, Johor, Melaka and Kedah.

One hundred years later, Ayutthaya under King Ekatat (Boromaraja V) (สมเด็จพระเจ้าเอกทัศน์)was faced with another Burmese invasion. He was the 33rd and last monarch of Ayutthaya Kingdom, ruling from 1758 to 1767. On April 7, 1767, Ayutthaya fell. The Burmese looted and burnt the city to the ground. This culminated in the fall and complete destruction of Ayutthaya. Siam was broken apart, Patani declared its independence.


The Malay states under the rule of Siam used the opportunity to declare independence from Siamese rule. The states were Ligor, Patalung and Singgora. Their independence was short-lived as Siam managed to cleanse Ayuthia from the Burmese forces and regain their power. The son of the king was sent to quell the rebellion in the south. The rulers of these three states fled and sought refuge in Patani. The Siamese authorities under the prince pursued them to Patani. He despatched a messenger to the king of Patani, Sultan Muhammad Patani. The messenger declared that the kingdom of Patani would face the wrath of Siam if it did not hand over the rebels. The Sultan had very little choice and agreed.

Thonburi Kingdom(1768-1782)

n 1768 Taksin (1734-1782)assumed the throne of Thonburi and was named King Krung-Thonburi (generally known as King Taksin the Great, สมเด็จพระเจ้ากรุงธนบุรี). He rapidly reunified the central Thai heartland. Probably as the kingdom had just emarged, Taksin needed huge resources. He thus began the Siamese expansion for the first time to conquer neighboring kingdoms. In 1769 was able to conquer western Cambodia. After that, his army marched south and reestablished Thai power over the Malay Peninsula including Syburi (today is Kedah)and Terengganu.

Chakri Dynasty(1782-until now)

General Taksin (later King Taksin) managed to defeat the Burmese and reunify the country, opening the way for the establishment of the Chakri dynasty by his successor, King Rama I(พระบาทสมเด็จพระปรมินทรมหาจักรีบรมนาถฯ พระพุทธยอดฟ้าจุฬาโลก, b 1736-d 1809). The Chakri Dynasty (also known as the House of Chakri) (Thai: ราชวงศ์จักรี: Rajawongse Chakri) is the current ruling royal house of the Kingdom of Thailand, the Head of the house is the King of Thailand. The Dynasty has ruled Thailand since the founding of the Ratthanakosin era and the city of Bangkok in 1782 following the end of King Taksin of Thonburi's reign, when the capital of Siam shifted to Bangkok. The Royal house was founded by King Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke an Ayutthayan military leader.

In 1784, under threat from Burma, the King of Siam again despatched his son to recapture the southern states of Ligor and Phuket from Burma. After the success of destroying the Burmese armada, the prince requested the states of Kedah and Patani to send Bunga Emas to Siam as a sign of subservience.

Sultan Muhammad Patani refused and rejected the request incurring the wrath of Siam who sent an army to attack and destroy Patani. The army assaulted an already weakened Patani kingdom in November 1786. Patani fell to the control of Siam on this historic date. The Siamese army committed atrocities with utmost rigour against the inhabitants. Sir Francis Light, who had just settled in Penang, wrote a letter to the Governor-General of India, Lord Cornwallis, detailing the massacre and atrocities that he had heard were occurring in Patani. Men, elderly ladies and children were all captured and thrown to the ground to be stepped upon by herds of elephants. 4000 more men were sent back to Ayuthia as slaves and were later used as labourers to build the new capital of Siam, called Bangkok.

Due to these atrocities many fled Patani to neighbouring Kedah. From 1786 onwards the rulers of Patani were appointed by the Siamese court in Ayuthia and later on Bangkok. This however did not stop the masses from rising up due to differential treatment meted out to the Malays. Beginning with Tengku Lamidin, who was appointed ruler by Siam, later rebelled and was subsequently captured and executed, the other rulers were also subservient in the beginning but revolted in the course of time.

Faced with frequent rebellions, the Siam authorities employed numerous tactics to pacify the south. The divide and rule tactic was used and the Patani provinces were divided into seven smaller provinces: Patani, Nhongchik, Raman, Ra-ngae, Saiburi, Yala and Yaring. This tactic however did not solve the problem; instead it created problems over revenue collections and taxation. It also did not quell the rebellions as the indigenous Patani rulers, influenced by the Kedah rebellion against Siam, also instigated another rebellion in 1832. They were defeated but another uprising was to occur 6 years later. The Siam authority then decided to choose the appointed officials from the Patani people themselves. This helped establish a stable and peaceful atmosphere for many years before the coming of King Chulalongkorn (1868-1910)

A resurgent and much stronger Siam, led by Prince Surasi (Vice-King Boworn Maha Surasinghanat), the younger brother of King Rama I, sought the submission of Pattani. During the reign of Pattani's last Queens in the 17th Century, the kingdom fell into disarray and went into gradual decline. A Siamese leader, Phraya Taksin, drove off the Burmese invaders out of Siam in a war of independence. His successor, Rama I, established the Chakri Dynasty, which still rules Thailand till today. The reunited and stronger Siamese army was to face another Burmese raid and demanded troops from a reluctant Pattani.

Prince Surasi, Rama I's son, invaded Pattani. Its Sultan Muhammad was killed in battle and his capital razed to the ground. According to local sources, 4,000 Malay men were enslaved and made to work on Bangkok's system of khlongs (canals). To further humiliate the Pattanese, the symbol of Pattani's military strength, the Seri Patani and Seri Negara cannons, were brought to Bangkok and it is today displayed in front of the Ministry of Defense.

On 1791 and 1808, there were several unsuccessful rebellions within Pattani against their Thai conquerors. Following which, Pattani was divided into 7 largely autonomous states ; Pattani, Nongchik, Saiburi (Teluban), Yala (Jala), Yaring (Jambu), Ra-ngae (Legeh) and Reman. All these was ruled by the King of Ligor. For several months, there was a period of independence when along with Kedah Malays, Pattanese drove the Thais out. This however was short-lived.

King Chulalongkorn (พระบาทสมเด็จพระปรมินทรมหาจุฬาลงกรณ์ฯ พระจุลจอมเกล้าเจ้าอยู่หัว, b 1853-d 1910) introduced a centralisation programme (thesaphiban) which was to increase the strain of direct control from the capital Bangkok. In 1901 Siam regrouped the seven provinces of Patani under one single administrative unit called “Area of Seven Provinces” (boriween chet huamuang) and placed it under the control of an area commissioner who worked directly under the Interior Ministry. The treasuries of the Malay kingdom was handled directly by the Revenue Department as in other Siamese provinces.

1902-1909 Under Siam

In 1902, Pattani was formally annexed by Siam.

By 1906 the area of the seven Malay provinces was administratively reorganised into a “circle” (monthon) called Monthon Patani. The Monthon Patani incorporated the seven provinces into four larger provinces: Patani, Bangnara, Saiburi and Yala.

A district of Kedah was also incorporated into Siamese territory and named Satun Province. Kedah was however ceded to England together with Perlis, Kelantan and Terengganu in accordance with the Anglo-Siamese Treaty signed in March 1909

1909 - Anglo-siamese treaty of 1909

Bangkok Treaty of 1909 was signed between Great Britain and Siam. With that agreement, the British recognized Siam sovereignty over Pattani. Later, all seven provinces were reunited into a monthon and incorporated into the kingdom. Later on the central government in Bangkok renamed certain localities with Thai-sounding names, as well as merging together some of the provinces. When the monthon was dissolved in 1933 three provinces remained - Pattani, Yala and Narathiwat.

Both Yala (Jala) and Narathiwat (Menara) were originally part of Pattani, but were made provinces of their own. Satun (Sentul) and Songkhla (Singgora) were nearby semi-independent states.

During WW2

During World War II, Thailand was an unofficial ally1 with Japan and allowed its southern territory to invade British dependencies and colonies on the Malay peninsula. Tengku Mahmud Mahyuddin, a prominent Pattani leader who was the son of the last Raja of Pattani, allied himself with the British in promises that after the war should they win, Pattani would be granted independence.

The major source of support came from the Malay people frustrated with the Rathaniyom policy during the reign of Phibul Songkhram where Malays were subjected to assimilation and forced to abandon large amounts of their indigenous culture.

The Malay leader collaborated with the British in launching guerrilla attacks against the Japanese. In 1945, a petition of Malay leaders lead by Tengku Abdul Jalal demanded from the British independence of the 4 southern provinces from Thailand, which itself had collaborated with the Japanese and declared war on the Allies in 1941. After the war, there was a period where the Greater Malay Pattani State (Negara Melayu Patani Raya) flag rose in Pattani. However, the British soon broke its war promises by reestablishing Thai presence in Pattani and the hopes of an independent Pattani was shattered.

This immediately gave rise to many insurgency groups seeking independence. British reasoning behind this move however is to keep Thailand stable, because they are seen as a strategic counterweight to the communist insurgency in China, Indochina and Malaya.

After the war finished, however, it was found that the Thai government in charge at that time which declared an ally with Japan was no longer a valid government. Therefore, any agreement it made was invalid. From Free Thai Movement contributions to the Allies intelligence during war time, Thailand was recognized as a non-ally of Japan.

During the World War II, along with the Greater Patani Malay Movement lead by Tengku Mahmud Mahyuddin, another resistance force under the leadership of Islamic scholar Haji Sulong Tokmina fought alongside against the Japanese. Their stated goal is to create an Islamic republic in Patani, which frequently put it at odds with Tengku Mahmud who wants to reestablish the Pattanese Sultanate (being a prince himself).

Today, the goals and ideas of Haji Sulong Tokmina is still carried on by minor resistance groups interested in creating an Islamic republic. After the war though, hopes of any independent republic in Pattani was quickly dashed by the British and the Thais.

Chronology of Patani Rulers

bf.1400 Patani kingdom founded
1786 Thai occupation
1816 split into 7 divisions (Patani, Rahman, Jalar, Sai, Legeh,
Jering, Nongcik)
1902 incorporated into Siam, now Thailand.

Inland Dynasty

* Sultan Ismail Shah (d. 1530?), founder of the kingdom according to one account, and the first ruler to convert to Islam. In actuality, other rulers must have preceded him. It is also likely that during his reign the Portuguese first visited the port to trade, arriving in 1516. He was called King Phaya Tu Nakpa before his conversion.
* Sultan Mudhaffar Shah (c. 1530-1564), son of Sultan Ismail Shah, who died during an attack on Ayudhya (Siam).
* Sultan Manzur Shah (1564-1572), brother of Sultan Mudhaffar Shah.
* Sultan Patik Siam (1572-1573), son of Sultan Mudhaffar Shah, who was murdered by his half-brother, Raja Bambang.
* Sultan Bahdur (1573-1584), son of Sultan Manzur Shah, who was considered a tyrant in most accounts.
* Raja Ijau (1584-1616), sister of Sultan Bahdur, during whose reign Patani attained his greatest economic success as a middle-sized port frequented by Chinese, Dutch, English, Japanese, Malays, Portuguese, Siamese, and other merchants.
* Raja Biru (1616-1624), sister of Raja Ijau.
* Raja Ungu (1624-1635), sister of Raja Biru, who was particularly opposed to Siamese interference in local affairs.
* Raja Kuning (1635-1649/88), daughter of Raja Ungu and last queen of the Inland Dynasty. Controversy surrounds the exact date of the end of her reign.

Kelantan Dynasty

* Raja Bakal, (1688-1690 or 1651-1670), after a brief invasion of Patani by his father in 1649, Raja Sakti I of Kelantan, he was given the throne in Patani.
* Raja Emas Kelantan (1690-1704 or 1670-1698), thought by Teeuw & Wyatt to be a king, but claimed by al-Fatani to be a queen, the widow of Raja Bakal and mother of the succeeding queen.
* Raja Emas Chayam (1704-1707 or 1698-1702 and 1716-1718), daughter of the two preceding rulers, according to al-Fatani.
* Raja Dewi (1707-1716; Fatani gives no dates).
* Raja Bendang Badan (1716-1720 or ?-1715), he was afterward raja of Kelantan, 1715-1733.
* Raja Laksamana Dajang (1720-1721; Fatani gives no dates).
* Raja Alung Yunus (1728-1729 or 1718-1729),
* Raja Yunus (1729-1749)
* Raja Long Nuh (1749-1771).

1690 - 1707 Raja Mas Kelatan
1707 - 1710 Raja Mas Jayam (1st time)
1710 - 1719 Raja Dewi (f)
1719 - 1723 Raja Bendang Badan
1723 - 1724 Raja Laksamana Dajang
1724 - 1726 Raja Mas Jayam (2nd time)
1726 - 12 Aug 1729 Along Yunus (b. ... - d. 1729)
1729 - 1749 Raja Yunus
1749- 1771 Raja Long Nuh
1729 - 1776 ...
1776 - 1786 Sultan Muhammad
1786 - 1791 Tengku Lamidin
1791 - 1808 Datok Pengkalan
1808 - 1815 Nai Khwan Sai
1815 - 1816 Nai Pai

Kelantan & Patani

Patani and Kelantan have close relationship. Raja Bakal, (1688-1690 or 1651-1670), after a brief invasion of Patani by his father in 1649, Raja Sakti I of Kelantan, he was given the throne in Patani.

Sultan Long Bahar, from Patani, ruled Kelantan from 1721 to 1734. He was the son-in-law of Sultan Omar, husband of Rajah Pah. This put an end to the Raja Jembal line of ancestry, which start from Raja Loyor to Sultan Omar. Raja Loyor was the raja of Jembal, who succeed Che Wan Kembang in 1649. Che Wan Kembang was the descendant of the original Raja Kumar.

Around 1760, Long Yunus, an aristocratic warlord of Patani origin succeeded in unifying the territory of present-day Kelantan.

Modern Thailand
Pattani Province(北大年府), Thailand

Pattani (Thai ปัตตานี) today is one of the southern provinces (changwat) of Thailand. Neighboring provinces are (from south-east clockwise) Narathiwat(陶公府), Yala(惹拉府) and Songkhla(宋卡府).

Pattani is one of the four provinces of Thailand(The others are Yala, Narathiwat,Satun) where the majority of the population are Malay Muslim, making up 88% of the population. They speak the Patani Malay language. The Pattani Malays are very similar in ethnicity and culture to the Malays of Kelantan, Malaysia.

Pattani is subdivided into 12 districts (amphoe), which are further subdivided into 115 communes (tambon) and 629 villages (muban).

The districts of Chana (Malay: Chenok), Thepa (Malay:Tiba) and Saba Yoi (Malay:Sebayu) were detached from Pattani and transferred to Songkhla in recent times by the Thai government.

1. Mueang Pattani (Malay: Patani)
2. Khok Pho
3. Nong Chik
4. Panare
5. Mayo
6. Thung Yang Daeng
7. Sai Buri (Malay: Teluban or Selindung Bayu)
8. Mai Kaen
9. Yaring (Malay: Jaring)
10. Yarang
11. Mae Lan
12. Kapho

separatist movement

A separatist movement now exists, which after being dormant for many years erupted again in 2004. The movement is extremely violent, committing acts such as murdering members of the Buddhist minority, burning public schools, mining roads and ambushing military and police units. Muslims who cooperate with Thai authorities including Thai schooling are also considered fair game for attack. The separatist movement are mainly Malay Muslims in Pattani, Narathiwat and Yala provinces, except Satun province(which are Kedah Malay).

( Note: Satun does not have a history of political confrontation with the central power in Bangkok or of tension with the Buddhist population which makes up the majority of Thailand as a country. Malay Muslims in Satun are substantially assimilated and rarely sympathise with separatism from Thailand. Some of them are mixed Malay-Siamese, called Samsam).

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