Friday, January 29, 2010

Johor Empire(1528-1857)

The Old Johor Empire(1528 - 1857)

The Sultanate of Johor (or sometimes Johor-Riau or Johor-Riau-Lingga or more correctly Johor Empire) was founded by Malaccan Sultan Mahmud Shah's son, Sultan Alauddin Riayat Shah II in 1528. Johor was part of the Malaccan Sultanate before the Portuguese conquered Malacca's capital in 1511. At its height, the sultanate controlled modern-day Johor, Riau and parts of southeastern Sumatra. In 1946, it became part of the Malayan Union. Two years later, it joined the Federation of Malaya and subsequently, the Federation of Malaysia in 1963.

The Royal house of Lingga represents the junior branch of the Royal house of Johor, descendants of Sayyid 'Aidarus of Aceh in Sumatra, originally from the Hadramaut in Southern Arabia . His descendants eventually came to rule over four states, Johor, Trengganu and Pahang in Malaysia and Lingga in Indonesia. On the death of Sultan Mahmud Shah III of Johor, a dispute over the succession ensued because he had not named a definite heir. The British supported his eldest son by a non-Royal wife and the Dutch his younger half-brother. After a long period of dispute between the two branches, and between their colonial supports, a settlement was reached in 1824. The Anglo-Dutch Treaty of London settled the boundaries of their spheres of influence, and two separate states emerged: Johor under British protection, and Riau-Lingga under the Dutch. The Sultan settled on Lingga and his Viceroy, at his stronghold on Riau The direct male line of the Royal house ended with the death of Sultan Sulaiman II in 1883. After a brief interregnum, the Dutch chose a grand nephew to succeed him as Sultan 'Abdu'l-Rahman II Mu'azzam Shah.

The new Sultan was a descendant of the Malay Royal house in the female line, and in the male line, from the Bugis viceregal house of Riau. His choice by the Dutch authorities did not meet with universal approval. A des cendant of the Bugis line, his selection contravened the traditional adat between the Bugis and Malays. That pact called for the separation of powers and offices between the two races. They followed this breach of customary law by a poorly disguised plan to impose stricter conditions on the sultanate. Learning of these moves, the Sultan refused to sign the new contract, destroyed his palace, collected his family and sailed for Singapore. There, he appealed to the British for help. The Governor of the Straits Settlements, while providing sanctuary, would not intervene beyond facilitating negotiations with the reluctant Dutch authorities. Protracted but ultimately abortive negotiations ensued over a long period, but without success. The Sultan, at one point offered to abdicate in favour of one the sons of his heir, the Tengku Besar. Nothing came of these negotiations because of Dutch intransigence. The Sultan died in exile in Singapore in 1930, without accomplishing his mission. Soon after his death, four or five princes from various branches of the family presented themselves as candidates for recognition as Sultan.

Fall of Malacca and the Beginnings of the Old Johore Sultanate
In 1511, Malacca fell to the Portuguese and Sultan Mahmud Shah was forced to flee Malacca. The sultan made several attempts to retake the capital but his efforts were fruitless. The Portuguese retaliated and forced the sultan to flee to Pahang. Later, the sultan sailed to Bintan and established a new capital there. With a base established, the sultan rallied the disarrayed Malay forces and organized several attacks and blockades against the Portuguese position.

Based at Pekan Tua, Sungai Telur, Johor, the Johor Sultanate was founded by Raja Ali Ibni Sultan Mahmud Melaka, known as Sultan Alauddin Kiayat Shah (1528–1564), with his Queen Tun Fatimah in 1528. Although Sultan Alauddin Riayat Shah and his successor had to contend with attacks by the Portuguese in Malacca and by the Acehnese in Sumatra, they managed to maintain their hold on the Johor Sultanate.

Frequent raids on Malacca caused the Portuguese severe hardship and it helped to convince the Portuguese to destroy the exiled sultan's forces. A number of attempts were made to suppress the Malay but it wasn't until 1526 that the Portuguese finally razed Bintan to the ground. The sultan then retreated to Kampar in Sumatra and died two years later. He left behind two sons named Muzaffar Shah and Alauddin Riayat Shah.

Muzaffar Shah continued on to establish Perak while Alauddin Riayat Shah became the first sultan of Johor.

The Wars: Triangular war

The new sultan established a new capital by the Johor River and from there, continued to harass the Portuguese in the north. He consistently worked together with his brother in Perak and the sultan of Pahang to retake Malacca, which by this time was protected by the fort A Famosa.

On the northern part of Sumatra around the same period, Aceh was beginning to gain substantial influence over the Straits of Malacca. With the fall of Malacca to Christians' hands, Muslim traders often skipped Malacca in favor of Aceh. Therefore, Malacca and Aceh became direct competitors.

With the Portuguese and Johor frequently locking horns, Aceh launched multiple raids against both sides in order to tighten its grip on the straits. The rise of Aceh encouraged the Portuguese and Johor to sign a truce and divert their attention to Aceh. The truce, however, was short-lived and with Aceh severely weakened, Johor and the Portuguese had each other in their sights again.

Acheh attack 1613
In 1613, Acheh attacked Johore and in the battle of Batu Sawar. Johore was defeated and the Royal Family and Tun Sri Lanang was captured and brought to Acheh. The Bendaharaship was continued by his descendants. His notable descendants include Bendehara Tun Habib Abdul Majid and the Raja Temenggung of Muar. In Aceh, a brief "reeducation" of the Johor Royal Family and was allow returned to Johore. Tun Sri Lanang elected to stay in Acheh. He became advisor to the third Sultan of Acheh and was bestowed an Acheh honirific title. He was awarded a personal fief in Samalanga, Aceh in 1613 and held the title Uleebalang of Samalanga. He died in 1659 in Samalanga.

The Dutch Malacca

In the early 17th century, the Dutch reached Southeast Asia. The Dutch were no friend of the Portuguese and allied themselves with Johor. A treaty was signed by Pieter Willemsz Verhoeff on behalf of the Dutch and the Bendehara of Johor in 1608. Finally in 1641, the Dutch and Johor forces headed by Bendahara Skudai, defeated the Portuguese. The Malay warriors fought valiantly and managed to open the gates of Malacca. And the Dutch finished off the Portuguese after that. For Johor, the defeat of the Portuguese is honor restored. As per the agreement with Johor in 1606, the Dutch took control of Malacca and agreed not to seek territories or wage war with Johor. Malacca then became a Dutch territory and remained so until the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824 was signed.

Jahor- Jambi War
During the triangular war, within the Johor empire, Jambi emerged as a regional economic and political power. Soon in 1666, it tried to break free from Johor and between 1666 and 1673, a civil war erupted between Johor and the Sumatran state. The war was disastrous for Johor as Johor's capital, Batu Sawar, was sacked by Jambi. After the sack, the capital of Johor was frequently moved to avoid the threat of attack from Jambi.

In their efforts to keep the sultanate together, the ruler's shifted their centre of power many times from Pekan Tua to Johor Lama (Kota Batu), Seluyut, Tanah Puteh, Batu Sawar and Makam Tauhid during the reign of Sultan Abdul Jalil Shah III (1623–1677). Johor emerged as the most powerful authority along the Straits of Malacca during the reign of Sultan Abdul Jalil Shah III.

Throughout the decade, Jambi continued to exert extraordinary influence on Johor. In 1679 however, Laksamana Tun Abdul Jalil paid Bugis mercenaries to fight alongside Johor against Jambi. Soon afterward, Jambi was brought to its knees.

Laksamana Tun Abdul Jalil was made Bendahara of Johor, succeeding Tun Sri Lanang who went into exile in Aceh. Tun Abdul Jalil was the de-facto ruler when Sultan Mahmud Shah II of Johor ascended to the throne in 1685.

Glory days of Johor Empire

As a result of his good relationship, Johor's trade along the Straits of Malacca was left undisturbed. Thus in the 17th century, with Malacca ceased to be an important port, the Johor Sultanate became the dominant local power in the region. The policies of the Dutch in Malacca drove traders to Riau. The trade of Riau (the seaport for the Johore Sultanate) had far surpassed that of Malacca. The VOC maintained the alliance with Johore, despite the discontent of Malacca, for the Dutch East India Company. The strength of Johore was seen as a safeguard to the peaceful trade in the Straits.

The Sultan provided all the facility required by the traders. Under the patronage of the Johor elites, traders are protected and prospered. With wide range of goods available and favorable prices, Riau boomed. Ships from various places such as Cambodia, Siam, Vietnam and all over the Malay Archipelago came to trade. The Bugis ships made Riau the centre for spices. In Riau, items found in China or example, cloth and opium were traded with locally sourced ocean and forest products, tin, pepper and locally grown gambier. Duties were low, and cargoes could be discharged or stored easily. Traders found they do not need to extend credit, for the business is good.

Like Malacca before it, Riau is also the centre of Islamic studies and propagation. Many orthodox scholars from the Moslem heartlands like India and Arabia were maintained in special religious hostels, while devotees of Sufism could seek initiation into one of the many tarika or Sufi Brotherhood which flourished in Riau. In many ways, Riau managed to recapture some of the old Malacca glory. Both became prosperous due to trade but there is a major difference, Malacca was also great due to its territorial conquest.

Bugis and Minangkabau influence in the kingdom(Raja Sulaiman Vs Raja Kechil

The last sultan from the Malaccan dynasty, Sultan Mahmud Shah II, is a person with unstable disposition. When Bendahara Habib was the Bendehara, he(Bendehara) effectively shielded the people from his majesty's idiosyncrasies.

Tun Habib Abdul Majid (1637–27 July 1697)
19th Bendahara of the Johor Sultanate during the late 16th century. The Johor Sultanate under Sultan Mahmud Shah II who belonged to the Malacca-Johor royal family with declining authority during Tun Habib's tenure as Bendahara. Tun Habib consolidated his power, and monopolised legitimate authority over the Johor Sultanate by the 1690s.
Referencing to some articles including ‘Ahlul-Bait Rasulullah s.a.w dan Raja Melayu’ written by Muzafar Mohamad dan Suzana M. Osman, and ‘Salasilah Sultan-Sultan Riau-Lingga’ stated that Bendahara Tun Habib ‘Abdul Majid was from the ancestry of Rasululah s.a.w. (Ahlul-Bait). Tun Habib's mother was of Malay ethnicity; while his father was of mixed ancestry. His great-grandfather, Sayyid Abdullah Al-Aidrus, was a Hadhrami Arab immigrant who settled in Aceh and married the daughter of Sultan Alauddin Mansyur Shah. Their son, Sayyid Zainal Abidin, migrated to Johor and married the granddaughter of Tun Sri Lanang by his son, Tun Jenal, the 5th Bendahara of Sekudai. It was from this union that the Maharaja Sri Diraja, the Dato Pasir Diraja (Sayyid Ja'afar) and Putri Bakal were born. Putri Bakal was believed to have later married Sultan Mahmud Shah II. Tun Habib later died in Padang Saujana, Kota Tinggi in 1697, where he was buried. Tun Habib had several sons by different wives, all of whom rose to influential positions. He had at least six sons: Tun (Habib) Abdul Jalil, Tun Abdullah, Tun Abdul Jamal, Tun Mas Anum, Tun Zainal Abidin and Tun Mas Jiwa were all later appointed as Bendaharas. Among these sons, Tun Abdul Jalil and Tun Zainal Abidin later established their own independent ruling houses in Johor-Riau and Terengganu respectively.

After the demise of Bendehara Habib, the Bendehara was replaced by his eldest son Bendahara Abdul Jalil. As the Bendahara was only a cousin, the Bendehara could not rein any more his idiosyncrasies. Few bizarre behavior is attributed to him.

The Sultan ordered the pregnant wife of Orang Kaya Megat Sri Rama killed, as she took a slice of the royal jackfruit. Subsequently the Sultan was killed by Megat Sri Rama. Sultan Mahmud Shah II of Johor died in 1699 without an heir. The Orang Kayas are in a fix. They went to Muar to meet Sa Akar DiRaja, Raja Temenggung of Muar, the Sultan's uncle and asked for his counsel. He pointed that Bendahara Abdul Jalil shall inherit the throne . The problem was quickly solved when the viceroy Bendahara Abdul Jalil was declared the new sultan and called Sultan Abdul Jalil IV. Many particularly, the Orang Laut (islanders from Johor maritime territories), however felt that the declaration was improper.(Note: Sultan ‘Abdu’l Jalil IV Ri’ayat Shah bin Dato Bendahara Tun Habib ‘Abdul Majid, son of Bendahara Tun Habib,not from Malacca sultanate bloodline). This end the sultanate from Malacca Dynasty and begin the Bendahara Dynasty.

The Bugis, which played an important role in defeating Jambi two decades earlier, had a huge influence in Johor. Apart from the Malays, another influential faction in Johor at that time was the Minangkabau. Both the Bugis and the Minangkabau realized how the death of Sultan Mahmud II had provided them with the chance to exert power in Johor. The Minangkabau introduced a Minangkabau prince, Raja Kecil from Siak who claimed he was the posthumous son of Sultan Mahmud II. The prince met with the Bugis and promised the Bugis wealth and political power if they helped the prince to win the throne. However, Raja Kecil broke his promise and installed himself as the new sultan of Johor (Sultan Abdul Jalil Rahmat Shah) without the knowledge of the Bugis. Sultan Abdul Jalil IV fled to Pahang where he was later killed by an assassin hired by Raja Kecil at Kuala Pahang.

Dissatisfied with Raja Kecil's accession, the son of Sultan Abdul Jalil IV, Raja Sulaiman, asked Daeng Parani of the Bugis to aid him in his quest to reclaim the throne. In 1722, Raja Kecil was dethroned by Raja Sulaiman's supporters with Bugis assistance. Raja Sulaiman became the new Sultan of Johore, but he was a weak ruler and became a puppet of the Bugis. Daeng Parani's brother, Daeng Merewah, who was made Yam Tuan Muda (crown prince) was the man who actually controlled Johor.

The fall of the Old Johor Sultanate

In 1818, Sir Stamford Raffles was appointed as the governor of Bencoolen on western Sumatra. However, he was convinced that the British needed to establish a new base in Southeast Asia in order to compete with the Dutch. Though many in the British East India Company opposed such an idea, Raffles managed to convince Lord Hastings of the Company, then Governor General of British India, to side with him. With the governor general's consent, he and his expedition set out to search for a new base.

Raffles' expedition arrived in Singapore on 29 January 1819. He discovered a small Malay settlement at the mouth of Singapore River headed by a Temenggung (governor) of Johor. Though the island was nominally ruled by the sultanate, the political situation there was extremely murky. The current sultan, Tengku Abdul Rahman, was under the influence of the Dutch and the Bugis. Hence, he would never agree to a British base in Singapore.

However, Tengku Abdul Rahman was ruler only because his older brother, Tengku Hussein or Tengku Long, had been away in Pahang getting married when their father died in 1812. He was appointed by the Yam Tuan Muda of Riau, Raja Jaafar because according to him, in a Malay tradition, a person has to be by the dying sultan's side in order to be considered as the new ruler. However the matter has to be decided by the Bendehara as the "keeper of adat". Predictably, the older brother was not happy with the development.

Raja Jaafar's sister, the queen of the late Sultan, protested vehemently at her brother's actions with these prophetic words, "...Which adat of succession is being followed? Unfair deeds like this will cause the Johor Sultanate be destroyed!!!". And she held on the royal regalia refusing to surrender it.

Bendehara Ali was made aware of the affairs of the succession and decided to act. He prepared his fleet of boats to Riau to "restore the adat". The British upon knowing this despatched a fleet and setup a blockade to stop the forces of Bendehara Ali from advancing.

With the Temenggung's help, Raffles managed to smuggle Hussein, then living in exile on one of the Riau Islands, back into Singapore.According a correspondence between Tengku Hussain and his brother, he left for Singapore out of his concern of his son's safety. Unfortunately he was captured by Raffles and forced to make a deal. Their agreement stated that the British would acknowledge Tengku Hussein as the "legitimate ruler" of "Johor", and thus Tengku Hussein and the Temenggung would receive a yearly stipend from the British. In return, Tengku Hussein would allow Raffles to establish a trading post in Singapore. This treaty was ratified on 6 February 1819.

Bendehara Ali was requested by the British to recognize Tengku Hussein as a ruler. However, Bendehara Ali has stated that he has no connection with the events in Singapore , as it is the Temenggung's fief and stated that his loyalty lies with the Sultan of Johor in Lingga.

1824 Anglo-Dutch Treaty
The Dutch were extremely displeased with Raffles' action. Tensions between the Dutch and British over Singapore persisted until 1824, when they signed the Anglo-Dutch Treaty. Under the terms of that treaty, the Dutch officially withdrew their opposition to the British presence in Singapore. Many historians contend that the treaty divided the spheres of influence between the Dutch and the English; Sultanate of Johor into modern Johor and the state of Riau-Lingga which exists de jure after the ouster of the last Sultan of Johor. However this treaty is signed secretly without the knowledge of the local nobility including the Sultan and thus its legitimacy is called into question.

The British successfully sidelined Dutch political influence by proclaiming Sultan Hussein as the Sultan of Johor and Singapore to acquire legal recognition in their sphere of influence in Singapore and Peninsular Malaysia. The legitimacy of Sultan Hussein's proclamation as the Sultan of Johor and Singapore, was by all accounts not recognised by the Malay rulers and his title only served as a nominal title. Temenggong Abdul Rahman's position, on the other hand, was strengthened as the signing of the treaties detached him the influence of Raja Ja'afar. Meanwhile, Sultan Abdul Rahman was installed as the Sultan of Lingga in November 1822, complete with the royal regalia. Sultan Abdul Rahman, who had devoted himself to religion, became contented with his political sphere of influence in Lingga, where his family continued to maintain his household under the administrative direction of Raja Ja'afar who ruled under the auspices of the Dutch.

The Interested Parties in the Treaty

The actors on this stage are three parties; the Colonial powers of British and the Dutch; the nobles who made agreement with the Dutch namely Raja Jaafar, Yam Tuan Muda of Riau and Temenggung Abdul Rahman, of Johore and Singapore ; the palace namely the Sultan and Bendahara who is not aware of any treaty signed without their knowledge.[16] Because the treaties are not ratified by the Sultan or the Bendahara, the Malays do not pay heed to any action of the Colonial powers.

The Yam Tuan Muda has committed treachery by "selling" the sovereignty of Johore[17], however it does not hold as the Sultan or the Bendahara is not a party to the treaty. It is wrong to pass judgements on the Sultan as not obeying the 1830 treaty. The treaty was signed in secret[18] and details were only known in 1855. In actuality, the Sultan is excersizing his sovereign right in demanding loyalty from fiefdoms in the Johore Empire. As for the Temenggung, he is strengthening his position and in preparation of any changes to fate of the Sultanate, preparing to have friendship with Great Britain and sharing the spoils with Britain at the demise of the Sultanate. This is especially true for the son of Temenggung Ibrahim, the ambitious Temenggung (and later Sultan) Abu Bakar who plans to be Sultan.

Attempt to consolidate power
Sultan Abdul Rahman died in 1832 and was replaced by his son, Sultan Muhammad Shah (reigning from 1832-1841). Raja Jaffar, Yam Tuan Muda of Riau died and the Sultan is in no hurry to appoint a successor. The Sultan saw the damage that was done to the Palace in his father's reign and decided to reemphasis and restore adat[19] as a rule governing personal behavior and the politics. He summoned Bendahara Ali to Lingga. At Lingga, an adat-steeped function[20] was held. The Bendahara conducted ceremonies (as per adat) aimed at reeducating the nobility and the Sultan about their respective duties and responsibilities. Islam and politics were discussed. It was attended by all the nobles from across the Empire hence, proving that 'Sultan' of Singapore is not recognized by the Malays. The ceremonies also include istallation of Tengku Mahmud (later ruling as Sultan Mahmud Muzaffar) as a Crown Prince and Tun Mutahir as Bendehara-in-waiting.

In 1841, Bendahara Ali appoint Temenggung Ibrahim [21] to replace his father who died in 1825. The long interval is due to displeasure of the Bendahara over the affairs of Singapore. Conditions were imposed during the appointment includes paying a visit of fealty to the ruling Sultan Mahmud Muzaffar in Lingga which brings pleasure to his majesty. 'Sultan Hussein' of Singapore has died in 1835 and his prince Tengku Ali wished for the legitimacy granted to Temenggung Ibrahim. The British forwarded the request in 1841 to the Bendahara. Bendahara Ali refused to take part in this treachery.

After waiting since 1835 for the 'appointment' as a Sultan, in 1852 Tengku Ali decided to 'return Johor' to the Johor Empire by paying homage to Sultan Mahmud Muzaffar in Lingga. For three years Johor Empire was one again except Singapore. Worried by the current state of affairs, the British called Tengku Ali back to Singapore on the threat of cancelling his pension. In Singapore, he is frequently visited by Sultan Mahmud Muzaffar and their relations are cordial.

Johor rule in Singapore

The territory controlled by the Johore Riau Lingga Pahang Sultanate in the late eighteenth century still included Singapore as part of its territory. The sultanate had become increasingly weakened by a division into a Malay faction, which controlled the peninsula and Singapore, and a Bugis faction which controlled the Riau Archipelago and Sumatra. When Sultan Mahmud Riayat Shah III died in 1812, the Bugis had proclaimed the younger of his two sons, Abdul Rahman, as sultan instead of the elder son, Tengku Long. While the sultan was the nominal ruler of his domain, senior officials actually governed the sultanate. In control of Singapore and the neighboring islands was Temenggong Abdul Rahman, Tengku Long’s father-in-law. In 1818, he and some of his followers left Riau for Singapore shortly after the Dutch signed a treaty with the Sultan Abdul Rahman, allowing the Dutch to station a garrison at Riau.

In 1819, Tengku Long signed a treaty with the British led by Sir Stamford Raffles. In exchange for British protection and recognising him as Sultan of Johore, Tengku Long agreed to allow the British to establish a trading post in Singapore. Proclaimed as Sultan Hussein Shah, he became the Sultan of Johore.

In 1835, Sultan Hussein Shah died and was succeeded by his eldest son, Tengku Ali. Sultan Hussein had signed away his rights over the island in exchange for the land at Kampong Gelam plus an annual stipend for his family. After the Sultan's death, disputes broke out among his descendants. In the late 1890s, they went to court, where it was decided that no one in the family had the rights as the successor to the sultanate and the land at Kampong Gelam should be reverted to the state [Tengku Mahmud vs. Tengku Ali, Straits Settlements Laws Report 1897 (Vol. 5)]. This ended the reign of the Malay kings in Singapore.

End of the Empire

The worried British then forced the 1855 treaty between Temenggung Ibrahim and Tengku Ali. In exchange for recognition as a 'Sultan', Tengku Ali agrees to 'give up all of Johor'. The treaty merely 'confirms' the Temenggung's hold on his fief. This treaty intends to solidify the position of Temenggung Ibrahim, their key ally.

Bendahara Ali was asked by the Sultan Mahmud Muzaffar about the 1855 treaty. In his reply, the Bendahara reiterated about the Temenggung is supposed to swear fealty to his majesty and on the behavior of Tengku Ali, the Bendehara claimed ignorace. He also reiterated that he is not a party to any discussion with the British or the Dutch.

The Dutch is also very worried. It seems that the Sultan is acting on his own and would not listen to any of the Dutch-influenced Yam Tuan Muda of Riau and the Bugis nobility. It erupted into a open dispute between Sultan Mahmud Muzaffar and the Bugis nobility over the appointment of new Yam Tuan Muda of Riau. The Bugis preferred candidate is also the Dutch choice. The Sultan resents having another foreign-backed Yam Tuan Muda of Riau. It resulted in a deadlock that the Sultan set sail to Singapore for a cool off. It is during the Singapore trip that the last Sultan of the mighty Johore Empire was deposed by the Bugis nobility in 1857.

The new Johor Sultanate(Riau-Lingga kingdom)
After the ouster of the former Sultan of Johor, the Bugis nobles elected the new Sultan, Sultan Sulaiman Badrul Shah, the Sultan of the "new" Riau-Lingga Kingdom built on the ashes of the Johore Empire. The Sultan signed an agreement with the Dutch. In the agreement he agreed to acknowledge the overlordship of the Dutch government among others. At a stroke of a pen, he broke up the Johor Empire into 2 big parts and has given up the sovereignty of his part of territory to the Dutch. This also marked the end of the Malacca and later Johor sultanate. This division remains until today as the Malaysia-Indonesia border.

The Split: Formation of Johor and Pahang sultanate
As the Sultan Mahmud Muzaffar was ousted and the new Sultan declared territory separate from the former Johor Empire, it was akin to a sheep slaughtered with Sultan and Riau-Lingga represented by the head. The Bendahara is now the virtual head of remnants of the Empire as per the prevailing adat[29]. Temenggung Ibrahim of Johore understood this situation and quickly signed a treaty with Bendahara Tun Mutahir of Pahang in 1861 [30]. The treaty recognizes the territories of Johor (mainland), the Temenggung and his descendent's right to rule it, mutual protection and mutual recognitions of Pahang and Johor. With the signing of this treaty, the remnants of the Empire became 2 independent states, Johor and Pahang.

List of Sultans in Johor Empire
Malacca-Johor Dynasty

Alauddin Riayat Shah II 1528 - 1564
Muzaffar Shah II 1564 - 1570
Abdul Jalil Shah I 1570 - 1571
Ali Jalla Abdul Jalil Shah II 1571 - 1597
Alauddin Riayat Shah III 1597 - 1615
Abdullah Ma'ayat Shah 1615 - 1623
Abdul Jalil Shah III 1623 - 1677
Ibrahim Shah 1677 - 1685
Mahmud Shah II 1685 - 1699

Bendahara Dynasty

Abdul Jalil IV (Bendahara Abdul Jalil) 1699 - 1720

Malacca-Johor Dynasty (descent)
Abdul Jalil Rahmat Shah (Raja Kecil) 1718 - 1722((Sultan of Riau-Lingga-Pahang,included Singapore)

Bendahara Dynasty

Sulaiman Badrul Alam Shah 1722 - 1760(Sultan of Johore-Riau-Lingga-Pahang),control by Bugis)
Abdul Jalil Muazzam Shah 1760 - 1761
Ahmad Riayat Shah 1761 - 1761
Mahmud Riayat Shah III 1761 - 1812((Sultan of Johore-Riau, died on 12-1-1912 without successor)

Dispute on succession(1812-1824)

Abdul Rahman Muazzam Shah 1812 - 1832 (Sultan of Lingga,Placed on the throne instead of his older brother Hussein, supported by Bugis. Dispute without complete of royal regalia. Note he is Sultan of Lingga,of Johor Empire from 1812-1824, but only complied with royal regalia in 1822. In 1824, due to 1824 Anglo-Dutch Treaty, he retain only as Sultan of Lingga-Riau sultanate until died in 1832).

Sultan of Johor(Johor/Pahang/Singapore)- not recognized by Malay, based in Singapore
Hussein Shah (Tengku Long) 1819 - 1835 - support by British as Sultan of Johor
Bendahara Ali 1835 - 1877 - give Singapore to British,and Modern Johor formed

Sultanate of Lingga-Riau(after 1824 Anglo-Dutch Treaty)
Sultan Abdul Rahman Muazzam Shah. 1822- 1832- support by Bugis(1822-completed royal regalia).
Sultan Muhammad II Muazzam Shah 1832-1835
Sultan Mahmud IV Muzaffar Shah 1835 -1857(deposed by the Bugis, Indonesian said Dutch)
Sultan Sulaiman II Badrul Alam Shah 1857 -1883(Sultan of the "new" Riau-Lingga Kingdom only)

Sultan Abdul Rahman was installed as the Sultan of Lingga in November 1822
Sultan Abdul Rahman died in 1832 and was replaced by his son, Sultan Muhammad Shah (reigning from 1832-1841).He also install Tengku Mahmud (later ruling as Sultan Mahmud Muzaffar) as a Crown Prince and Tun Mutahir as Bendehara-in-waiting.

The last Sultan of the mighty Johore Empire, Sultan Mahmud Muzaffar was deposed by the Bugis nobility in 1857(Indonesian version said Dutch, this may be true as after 1824, Dutch has political control). Bugis nobles elected the new Sultan, Sultan Sulaiman II Badrul Alam Shah as Sultan of the "new" Riau-Lingga Kingdom built on the ashes of the Johore Empire.

Anglo-Dutch Treaty 1824 was the most important historical event, which start the split of Johor Empire to Lingga-Riau in Sumatra, and Johor sultanate(Johor/Singapore/Pahang)in Malay Peninsular. However, the division on dispute of succession was the main cause that the British was able to take opportunity to share the power influence with Dutch on Johor Empire.

List of Sultans - Lingga-Riau Sultanate

1. Sultan Abdul Rahman Muazzam Shah (1818–1832)Note: 1812 or 1818 or 1822?
2. Sultan Muhammad II Muazzam Shah (1832–1835)
3. Sultan Mahmud IV Muzaffar Shah (1835–1857)
4. Sultan Sulaiman II Badrul Alam Shah (1857–1883)
5. Sultan Abdul Rahman II Muazzam Shah (1885–1911) - he moved the capital from Daik, Pulau Lingga to Pulau Penyengat in Riau. Sultan Abdul Rahman II Muazzam Shah, escaped to Singapore and was dethroned by Dutch colonist in 1911. He passed away at Teluk Belanga, Singapura on 28 December 1930.

The remaining territory in Malaya peninsular was split into Pahang and Johor.

Temenggong Dynasty(Modern Johor)- Johore only

Raja Temenggung Tun Ibrahim 1855 - 1862
Abu Bakar 1862 - 1895
Ibrahim 1895 - 1959
Ismail 1959 - 1981
Mahmud Iskandar Al-Haj 1981 - 2010
Tunku Ibrahim Ismail Ibni Almarhum Sultan Iskandar was proclaimed as the new Sultan of Johor on Sat, 23 Jan 2010.

Johor administration

The Johor Sultanate continued the system of administration previously practised in Malacca. The highest authority lay in the hands of the Yang di-Pertuan who was known as the Sultan. The Sultan was assisted by a body known as the Majlis Orang Kaya (Council of Rich Men) which was tasked with advising the Sultan. Among them were the Bendahara, Temenggong, Laksamana, Shahbandar and Seri Bija Diraja. During the 18th century, the Bendahara lived in Pahang and the Temenggong Johor in Teluk Belanga, Singapore. Each one managed the administration of their individual areas based on the level of authority bestowed upon them by the Sultan of Johor.

The Johor Empire is decentralized. It is made of four main fiefs and the Sultan's territory. The fiefs are Muar and its territories under the Raja Temenggung of Muar[7]; Pahang under the stewardship of the Bendehara[8]; Riau under the control of Yam Tuan Muda and mainland Johor and Singapore under the Temenggung. The rest of the Empire belongs to the Sultan. The Sultan resides in Lingga. All the Orang Kayas except Raja Temenggung Muar reports directly to the Sultan ; Raja Temenggung Muar is a sovereign and is recognised by the Sultan.

Extent of the Empire

As the Sultanate replaces the Malacca Sultanate, it follows that the extent of its territorial area covers the southern Malay peninsular, parts of south-eastern Sumatra and the Riau Islands and its dependencies. This territory includes the vassal states of Pahang, Muar, Johor mainland and Riau Islands. The administrative centre of the empire was at various times at Sayong Pinang, Kota Kara, Seluyut, Johor Lama, Batu Sawar and Kota Tinggi; all on mainland Johor and later at Riau and Lingga. It then shifted with the birth of Modern Johore Sultanate to Tanjung Puteri, known today as Johor Bahru.

Johor Empire is important in the history of Strait of Malacca; as it was the 2ns Malay sultanate which has power control over the area.

Related articles:

1. Malacca-Johore, brief history,
2. Johor, Bendahara Dynasty,
3. Johor(Singapore),
4. Tun Habib Abdul Majid,
4. Lingga,
5. Pahang,
6. Johor Sultanate, wikipedia

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