Monday, January 11, 2010


1512 Part of Johor.
1725 Negeri Terengganu Darul Iman established.
c.1781 - 9 Jul 1909 Terengganu under Thai sovereignty.
9 Jul 1909 British protectorate (an unfederated Malay state).
11 Dec 1941 - 20 Aug 1943 Occupied by Japan.
20 Aug 1943 - 8 Sep 1945 Annexed by Thailand.
1 Apr 1946 Joins Malay Union
31-8-1957 State of independent Malaya
16 Sep 1963 State of Malaysia

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Terengganu (Jawi: ترڠڬانو, formerly spelled Trengganu or Tringganu) is a sultanate and constitutive state of federal Malaysia. The state is also known by its Arabic honorific, Darul Iman ("Abode of Faith"). The coastal city of Kuala Terengganu which stands at the mouth of the broad Terengganu River is both the state and royal capital as well as the largest city in Terengganu.

Early History

Terengganu's location by the South China Sea ensured that it was on trade routes since ancient times. The earliest written reports on the area that is now Terengganu were by Chinese merchants and seafarers in the early 6th century A.D. Like other Malay states, Terengganu practiced a Hindu–Buddhist culture combined with animist traditional beliefs for hundreds of years before the arrival of Islam. Under the influence of Srivijaya, Terengganu traded extensively with the Majapahit Empire, the Khmer Empire and especially the Chinese. Terengganu was the first Malay state to receive Islam, as attested to by a stone monument dated 1303 with Arabic inscriptions found in Kuala Berang, the capital of the district of Hulu Terengganu. Terengganu became a vassal state of Melaka, but retained considerable autonomy with the emergence of Riau-Johor Sultanate.

History of Trengganu Sultanate

1725 Negeri Terengganu Darul Iman established.
Terengganu emerged as an independent sultanate in 1725. The first Sultan was Tun Zainal Abidin, the younger brother of a former sultan of Johor, and Johor strongly influenced Terengganu politics through the 18th century.

However, in the book Tuhfat al-Nafis written by Raja Ali Haji, in the year 1708, Tun Zainal Abidin was installed as the Sultan of Terengganu by Daeng Menampuk also known as Raja Tua under the rule of Sultan Sulaiman Badrul Alam Shah.

1781 Under Siam Rule
Tuanku Mansur Shah I was the prince, with whom Moahomed Sultan of Johor found refuge when the Dutch took Rhio in 1785. In 1787, with a view of effective protection from Siam, he wrote a letter to Francis Light to offer a settlement at her capital.

Burney Treaty 1826
in 1826, the British through the Company, represented by Capt Henry Burney signed a secret treaty known today as the Burney Treaty with the King of Siam. The four Malay states(Kedah, Kelantan, Trengganu & Patani) were not present during the signing of the agreement. In that treaty, British acknowledged Siamese sovereignty over all those states. In return, Siam accepted British ownership of Penang and Province Wellesley(Prai) and allowed the Company to trade in Terengganu and Kelantan unimpeded.

Tuanku Mansur Shah II (1831-1837)

The Chinese population at the town was 600,live in strong stone and brick built houses; Malay 15,000 to 20,000. The state (excluded kemaman) was with 30,000 souls(TJ Newbold ,1839)

Anglo-Siamese Treaty 1909
In the 19th century, Terengganu became a vassal state of Siam, and sent tribute every year to the King of Siam called bunga mas. Under Siamese rule, Terengganu prospered, and was largely left alone by the authorities in Bangkok. The terms of the Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909 saw power over Terengganu transferred from Siam to Great Britain. A British advisor was appointed to the sultan in 1919, and Terengganu become one of the Unfederated Malay States. The move was highly unpopular locally, and in 1928 the British used military force to suppress a popular uprising. During World War II, Japan occupied Terengganu and transferred sovereignty over the state back to Siam, along with Kelantan, Kedah, and Perlis. After the defeat of Japan, British control over these Malay states was reestablished. Terengganu became a member of the Federation of Malaya in 1948, and a state of independent Malaya in 1957.

List of Sultans
1725 - 7 Mar 1733 Tuanku Zainal Abidin I ibni
al-Marhum Bendahara Seri
Maharaja Tun Habib Abdul Majid (b. 1678 - d. 1733)
7 Mar 1733 - 26 Jan 1793 Tuanku Mansur Shah I ibni
al-Marhum Sultan Zainal Abidin (b. 1715 - d. 1793)
7 Mar 1733 - 26 Feb 1741 Engku Tanang Wangsa -Regent
26 Jan 1793 - 23 Oct 1808 Tuanku Zainal Abidin II ibni
al-Marhum Sultan Mansur Shah (b. 1744 - d. 1808)
23 Oct 1808 - 4 Jul 1830 Tuanku Ahmad Shah I ibni
al-Marhum Sultan Zainal Abidin (d. 1830)
1826 - 4 Jul 1830 Tuanku Abdul Rahman ibni al-Marhum
Sultan Zainal Abidin -Regent (d. 1831)
4 Jul 1830 - 31 Jan 1831 Tuanku Abdul Rahman ibni al-Marhum
Sultan Zainal Abidin (s.a.)
31 Jan 1831 - 1831 Tuanku Umar ibni al-Marhum
Sultan Abdul Rahman (1st time) (b. 1806 - d. 1876)
- jointly with the following -
31 Jan 1831 - 8 Mar 1837 Tuanku Mansur Shah II ibni
al-Marhum Sultan Zainal Abidin (d. 1837)
8 Mar 1837 - 4 Nov 1839 Tuanku Muhammad Shah I ibni
al-Marhum Sultan Mansur Shah (b. 1821 - d. 1840)
4 Nov 1839 - 11 Apr 1876 Tuanku Umar ibni al-Marhum
Sultan Abdul Rahman (2nd time) (s.a.)
11 Apr 1876 - 1876 Tuanku Mahmud Shah ibni
al-Marhum Sultan Abdul Rahman
1876 - 18 Dec 1881 Tuanku Ahmad Muadzam Shah II ibni
al-Marhum Yang Dipertuan (b. 1839 - d. 1881)
Muda Mahmud
18 Dec 1881 - 25 Nov 1918 Tuanku Zainal Abidin III Muadzam
Shah ibni al-Marhum Sultan
Ahmad Muadzam Shah (b. 1866 - d. 1918)
25 Nov 1918 - 20 May 1920 Tuanku Muhammad Shah II ibni
al-Marhum Sultan Zainal Abidin (b. 1888 - d. 1956)
Muadzam Shah
20 May 1920 - 25 Sep 1942 Tuanku Sulaiman Badarul Alam Shah
ibni al-Marhum Sultan Zainal
Abidin Muadzam Shah (b. 1895 - d. 1942)
25 Sep 1942 - 20 Aug 1943 Tuanku Ali ibni al-Marhum Sultan
Sulaiman Badarul Alam Shah (b. 1914 - d. 1996)
(1st time)
8 Sep 1945 - 5 Nov 1945 Tuanku Ali ibni al-Marhum Sultan
Sulaiman Badarul Alam Shah (s.a.)
(2nd time)
(arrested by British forces 29 Sep 1945)
5 Nov 1945 - 20 Sep 1979 Tuanku Ismail Nasiruddin Shah
ibni al-Marhum Sultan Zainal
Abidin Muadzam Shah (b. 1907 - d. 1979)
21 Aug 1965 - 20 Sep 1970 Tengku Mahmud -Regent (b. 1930 - d. 1998)
20 Sep 1979 - 14 May 1998 Tuanku Mahmud al-Muktafi Billah (s.a.)
Shah ibni al-Marhum Sultan Ismail
Nasiruddin Shah
15 May 1998 - Tuanku Mizan Zainal Abidin ibni
al-Marhum Sultan Mahmud (b. 1962)
13 Dec 2006 - Tengku Muhammad Ismail -Regent (b. 1998)

¹Full style of the ruler: Duli Yang Maha Mulia Sultan dan Yang di-Pertuan Besar Terengganu Darul Iman ("Sultan and Head of the State of Trengganu").

British Agents
1904 - 1909 ....
1909 - 1913 William Lance Conlay (b. 1869 - d. 1927)
1913 - 1915 Walter D. Scott
1915 - 1916 C.N. Maxwell
1916 - 1919 John Lisseter Humphreys (b. 1881 - d. 1929)
1919 - 1925 John Lisseter Humphreys (s.a.)
Nov 1919 - Jan 1920 Walter Evelyn Pepys (b. 1885 - d. 1966)
(acting for Humphreys)
Feb 1919 - May 1920 H.C. Eckhardt
(acting for Humphreys)
1925 - 1926 James William Simmons (b. 1877 - d. 19..)
1926 - 1928 William Miles Millington (b. 1883 - d. 19..)
1928 - 1931 Alfred John Sturrock (b. 1879 - d. 19..)
Mar 1931 - 1932 Gordon Lupton Ham (b. 1885 - d. 1965)
1932 - 1934 Charles Cuthbert Brown (b. 1888 - d. 19..)
1934 - 1935 Norman Rowlstone Jarrett (b. 1889 - d. 1982)
(1st time) (acting)
1935 - 1936 J.E. Kepme
Dec 1936 - 1937 Norman Rowlstone Jarrett (b. 1889 - d. 1982)
(2nd time) (acting)
1937 Patrick Alexander Bruce McKerron (b. 1896 - d. 1964)
1937 - 1941 Norman Rowlstone Jarrett (s.a.)
(3rd time)
Dec 1937 - 1940 Arthur Egerton Coope (b. 1888 - d. 19..)
1940 - 1941 George Alexander de Chazal de (b. 1888 - d. 1976)
Moubray (acting to ... 1941)

Japanese Governors
1941 - 18 Mar 1942 ....
18 Mar 1942 - 194. Manabu Kuji

Thai Officer
20 Aug 1943 - Aug 1945 Prayoon Ratanakit

British Resident Commissioners
Aug 1945 - 1946 Derek Headly (b. 1908)
(acting to 1 Apr 1946)
1946 - 1948 John Graham Black (b. 1896 - d. 19..)
1949? - 1951 I.W. Blelloch (acting) (b. 1901)
1952 - May 1954 Maurice John Hayward (b. 1906)
May 1954 - 1955 J.F. Hannyngton (b. 1906)
British Adviser
1955 - Jan 1957 J.F. Hannyngton (s.a.)
1955 - Feb 1956 Frank Marshall Smith (b. 1912)
(acting for Hannyngton)

Chief ministers (title Menteri Besar)
1878 - 1886 Sayyid Abdullah bin Sayyid Muhammad
Zain al-Idrus
1886 - 21 Apr 1925 ....
21 Apr 1925 - 28 Jun 1940 Dato' Seri Amar Diraja Ngah
Muhamad bin Yusof
15 Jul 1940 - 6 May 1942 Tengku Seri Setia Raja Tengku Omar
bin Othman
17 May 1942 - 16 Dec 1945 Dato' Jaya Perkasa Da Omar bin
17 Dec 1945 - 26 Dec 1949 Tengku Panglima Perang Tengku
Muhamad bin al-Marhum Sultan Ahmad
27 Dec 1949 - Jun 1959 Dato' Perdana Menteri Di Raja
Dato' Seri Setia Raja Kamaruddin
bin Idris
Jun 1959 - 8 Nov 1961 Mohd Daud bin Abdul Samad
9 Nov 1961 - 3 Sep 1970 Tan Sri Ibrahim Fikri bin Mohammad
1 Oct 1970 - 4 Sep 1971 Dato' Mahmood bin Sulaiman
5 Sep 1971 - 3 Aug 1974 Dato' Nik Hassan bin Wan Abdul
1 Sep 1974 - 2 Dec 1999 Wan Mokhtar Ahmad (from 7 Jul
1982, Datuk Amar Wan Mokhtar
Ahmad; from 8 Apr 1983, Datuk
Wan Mokhtar Ahmad; from 26 Nov
1988, Tan Sri Wan Mokhtar Ahmad) (b. 1932) BN
2 Dec 1999 - 25 Mar 2004 Abdul Hadi Awang (b. 1947) PAS
(from 19 Jul 2001, Dato' Seri Abdul Hadi Awang)
25 Mar 2004 - 25 Mar 2008 Datuk (from 20 Jul 2004, Dato'
Seri) Idris Jusoh (b. 1955) UMNO/BN
25 Mar 2008 - Datuk Ahmad Said (b. 1957) UMNO

Hui Hui People in Trengganu
The most recent discovery uncovered that from the 12th till the 14th century, the district of Kuala Berang (Fo-Lo-An), in the state of Terengganu, is one of the earliest Chinese settlements. In addition, the “Batu Bersurat Terengganu” (Inscribed Stone Slab of Terengganu) was said to have inscription forms that are similar to ancient Chinese writings. There are “Orang Yunnan” (Yunnan people) that were Muslims before their migration from China. In the book published by the Al-Yunani Family, there is a significant coverage of the genealogy of the 7 Chinese Muslims of Hui ancestry from Guangdong Province that settled in Terengganu in the early 20th century.

The al-Yunani family of Trengganu were not strictly from the Yunnan, but were the Hui-Hui people from the Guangdong province in China. Members of L’s family who were early settlers in Kuala Trengganu adpted the family name al-Yunani (of the Yunnan) to signal to the local Malays and to the Chinese community that they were Muslim people, though they were not themselves from there.

The Hui Huis were generally Han Chinese, but in later classification of the Muslim community in China, the name was used to embrace other Muslim ethnic groups too, including the Turkic Muslims and even the former Nestorian Christians who converted to Islam many, many years ago. But the al-Yunani Hui Huis of Kuala Trengganu were Guangdong people who shared the same ethnicity as their non-Muslim cousins in Kampung China.

The journey of L’s al-Yunani family to Trengganu started in 1903 when Haji Ali bin idris (later to be known as Pak Ali Yunan), his wife Hajjah Halimah, and his mother-in-law left Palembang where they’d been settled, for Singapore.There they found another person, whose name was to become famous in Kuala Trengganu, Abdullah bin Sulaiman, or Pak Lah Yunan, and another man from Guangdong named Musa (Pak Musa). From there they looked for another place to go to, and finally decided on Trengganu, a state once visited by Cheng Ho (Zheng He). And so, joined by Pak Lah’s wife Khadijah (Pak Musa’ niece who joined them from Guangdong) and another man, Daud, they settled in Kuala Trengganu.

Pak Musa became an itinerant medicine peddler, Pak Daud became a general trader in Jalan Kedai Payang, while Pak Lah went to prospect for gold in Hulu Trengganu. While he was away, his wife and daughter opened a laundry shop in Kuala Trengganu, called Kedai Abdullah al-Yunani. When Pak Lah came back from the sticks, having failed to find much gold in the Hulu, he began to spend his days in the laundry shop, adding other items to its inventory, religious books on the shelves, and rice bags on the shop floor. Soon, in an act of trimming down, he stopped taking in dirty linen, and stopped the trade in rice entirely. He concentrated on the book-trade, and for a long time Abdullah al-Yunani became the most famous bookshop in Jalan Kedai Payang, in Kuala Trengganu.

In the records of the al-Yunani family of Trengganu, they have 7 pioneers who came down to Trengganu from China, the first five under the reign of Sultan Zainal Abidin III (1881 -1918)— Musa Li, Ali Zhang bin Idris, Abdullah Dong bin Sulaiman, Daud Dong and Hassan Liu bin Salleh. Then two more under the reign of Sultan Sulaiman Badrul Alam Shah (1921- 1942) — Muhammad Yusuf Xiao bin salleh, and Haji Ibrahim Fu bin Muhammad.

(extract from

Cham people in Trengganu

Cham are Malayo-Polynesian peoples of the former Champa empire, towards present day Nha Trang (Kauthara), and have in fact the oldest known Malayo-Polynesian written text dating to the 4th century AD near the former capital of Indrapura (Da Nang). They were semi-absorbed into Cambodia, some intermarriages, and some do work in Pattani region where they share similarities with other Malays. Cham don't just live in former Champa territory, they scattered far and wide, live in villages all over Cambodia even near Thailand, some moved to Java. In the 15 century, there was influx of Cham people to the east coast, a few Cham refugee fled to Malacca, but there were others who went to Kelantan and Trengganu.

Cham people, they share very close linguistic and cultural similarities with the people of Kelantan and Terengganu states in the north-eastern part of Malaya Peninsula.

Related articles:
1. The Hui Hui (Chinese Muslims) in Terengganu(1988), by Tan Chee Beng, published by Pengajian Pembangunan Manusia, Institut Pengajian Tinggi, Universiti Malaya ([Kuala Lumpur])
2. Growing up in Trengganu(2007), by Awang Goneng, published by Monsoon Books
3. Chinese Muslims in Malaysia, by Rosey Wang Ma,
4. Political and statistical account of the british settlements in the straitsVol 2(1839), by TJ Newbold, pg 59-63, published by John Murray, london

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